Elizabeth's Life and Times

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1520 Birth of William Cecil.

1527 Henry VIII tries to have his marriage to Katherine of Aragon annulled.

1533 Henry's secret marriage to Anne Boleyn (Jan). Annulment of Aragon marriage (May). Birth of Elizabeth at Greenwich Palace (Sept 7th).

1534 Elizabeth's christening (Feb. 10th). Act of Supremacy, whereby Henry is declared Supreme Head of the Church of England.

1536 Death of Katherine of Aragon (Jan). Boleyn marriage is declared invalid and Elizabeth made illegitimate (May 17th). Execution of Anne Boleyn (May 19th). Henry marries Jane Seymour (May 30th).

1537 Birth of Prince Edward (Oct 12th).

1543 Elizabeth attends wedding of Henry to Katherine Parr (July 12th).

1544 Act of Succession: Elizabeth is restored to the line of succession. William Grindal becomes Elizabeth's tutor.

1545 Elizabeth gives Henry VIII a translation of Katherine's devotional writings as a New Year's gift (Dec 31st).

1547 Death of Henry VIII (Jan 28th) and accession of Edward VI; Katherine Parr marries Lord Thomas Seymour.

1548 After Grindal's death, Roger Ascham is appointed Elizabeth's tutor. Elizabeth leaves Seymour establishment (May). Death of Katherine after childbirth (Sept).

1549 Arrest of Thomas Seymour (Jan); interrogation of Elizabeth at Hatfield (Feb).

1550 William Cecil is appointed surveyor of Elizabeth's estates.

1553 Edward disinherits his sisters (June) and dies (July 6th). Brief reign of Lady Jane Grey. Accession of Mary (July 19th).

1554 Sir Thomas Wyatt's rebellion (Jan), followed by imprisonment of Elizabeth in the Tower (March 17th). Elizabeth leaves Tower for house-arrest at Woodstock (May). Mary I's marriage to Philip of Spain is celebrated (July).

1555 Elizabeth leaves Woodstock for Hampton Court (April) and is allowed to go to her home at Hatfield (Oct). Foundation of Muscovy Company.

1556 Arrest of Kat Ashley and others in Elizabeth's household (May).

1556 Accession of Philip II as king of Spain.

1558 Mary Stewart marries the dauphin (April). Death of Mary I and accession of Elizabeth (Nov 17th); Hatfield speech.

1559 Elizabeth I's coronation (Jan 15th). New Elizabethan Prayer Book is endorsed by Parliament (April). Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis (Apr) between France and Spain. Death of Henry II of France and accession of Francis II; his wife Mary Stewart becomes Queen of France.

1560 Death of wife of Robert Dudley (Sept). Treaty of Edinburgh allies England with Scotland, breaking the `Auld Alliance' between Scotland and France. Re-coinage of debased coinage (Dec). Death of Francis II of France (Dec) and accession of his ten-year-old brother Charles IX.

1561 Mary returns to Scotland from France.

1562 Elizabeth falls ill with smallpox (Oct). First war of religion breaks out in France.

1563 Convocation draws up 39 Articles of Faith (Jan). Parliament calls for Elizabeth to marry and name a successor. Francis, Duc de Guise, is assassinated by a Protestant in France.

1564 Negotiations begin for a marriage between Elizabeth and the Archduke Charles of Austria. Robert Dudley is created Earl of Leicester.

1565 Marriage of Mary Queen of Scots to Henry Lord Darnley.

1566 Birth of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex. Birth of James Stewart.

1567 Murder of Darnley at Kirk O'Field (Feb); deposition of Mary, her infant son James VI succeeds her. The second war of religion breaks out in France.

1568 Mary flees to England (May).

1569 Northern Rising (Nov).

1570 Papal bull of excommunication (Feb). Rebellion in Ireland, suppressed by Sir Humphrey Gilbert. …