When Bruce Molloy (1) made the comment that an extraordinary number of Australian feature films made reference to a mythologized notion of Queensland, he also pointed out that these images of Queensland co-existed at a time when there was a very limited capacity for film and television production within the state. Queensland politics provided a rich source of material and inspiration for film-makers on projects developed and funded by interstate film bodies and carried out on a fly in fly out basis, (2) yet there were few local films that gave voice to the experiences of living within the 'sunshine' state. The Queensland Film Corporation is best remembered for the scandals that preceded the chief executive Allen Callaghan's resignation and imprisonment for the embezzlement of Corporation funds in 1986. (3) In many ways, the accusations of corruption and cronyism have tended to obscure any critical evaluation of QFC performance.
The following article focuses on the causes of Queensland's arrested development in the film and television industries, covering the decade of the Queensland Film Corporation's participation in local screen development. In other states this decade (from 1977 to 1987) was one of growth and gradual convergence of local production capacities. In Queensland however, fundamental institutional differences between production agencies and what were perceived as appropriate models of industrial development, were compounded by significant political discord within the state. These divisive factors severely affected the local capacity to make a significant contribution to Australian cinema for the period in question.
To be more specific, the local 'grass roots', predominately left, wing, independent film movements looked to alternative forms of content and circulation to mainstream media. By they were fundamentally at with a repressive government. Initially supported by the Australian Film Television and Radio Board (FTVRB) of the Australia Council, these groups coalesced within the city-based Brisbane Community Arts Centre, and subsequently regarded themselves as part of the constituency allied to the Australian Film Commission's Creative Development Branch. The QFC was more in tune with the AFC's predecessor the Australian Film Development Corporation, and clearly set its sights on the Hollywood model, with little tolerance for 'overprecious, quality-of-life, cultural-enhancement priorities'. (4) This situation was exacerbated by the AFC's abandonment of policy measures that specifically addressed issues of regional equity (implemented by the FTVRB) in favour of the more elitist model of art cinema. (5) Consequently, up until the 1990s, film and television production in Queensland existed as a number of disparate arenas of activity that had little interconnection. The focus of this article is to examine the origins of this discord and the impact that it has had on the developing potential of screen production in Queensland.
THE REGIONAL TELEVISION AND TELEVISION COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION
To cite O'Regan, one of the 'conditions of possibility' (6) for an Australian film revival was the development of Australian television production; and from a regional perspective, Australian television culture in its first twenty-five years was more local in character to what it is now. Christopher Beck's collection of anecdotes on the first twenty-five years of television in Queensland suggest a 'golden age' in the production of local content. (7) In 1964, both television stations, BTQ7 and QTQ9, were supporting huge production units, with recording studios, camera crews, costume departments, makeup rooms, and props departments, producing twenty hours of programming a week. By the late seventies, the variety show genre lost popularity; and with the gradual application of first landline then satellite technology, Brisbane television production shrank to sport, news, current affairs, and documentary programmes. Television officially became 'nationalized' with the comprehensive application of satellite technology and the federal legislative changes in 1986 that enabled the networks to legitimately consolidate their audience reach. Sydney and Melbourne increased their role in national and international production whereas their regional affiliates struggled to maintain their hold on the more low-cost forms of television programming. (8)
The attrition of personnel from the ABC and the commercial networks was absorbed to a limited degree by local employment in corporate and government production, (9) with television advertising clearly the mainstay in supporting local production.
Mike Williams and Vic Martin established the company, Martin Williams, the first and largest of the commercial production houses, in the early 1970s. The company succeeded in landing a number of large government contracts including tenders for Queensland Tourist and Travel and the Premier's Department. A 35mm cinema promotion for the Queensland Police Force was the first time a Panaflex camera was used in Queensland.
Mike Williams lobbied for the establishment of the Queensland Film Corporation and became a member of the board for the full 10 years duration of the Corporation. He also established a feature production arm that produced the first feature of this period, Final Cut (Ross Dimsey, 1980), written by local writer/academic Jonathan Dawson (10) and crewed by Queenslanders and the company's DOP, Ron Johanson. At the time, those who regarded themselves as professional practitioners considered the production a significant step in the development of a local feature film industry.
Dick Marks started out as a television trained camera operator, moved on to join Martin Williams, before establishing his own company in 1975. Bolstered by content regulations in television advertising he developed a world-wide reputation as director/ cinematographer, landing many of the more lucrative international contracts such as Coca-Cola. Although he was always in demand (gaining membership of the prestigious Directors Guild of America) he never gained the opportunity to extend his skills into feature film production. (11) Interstate productions using Queensland as a location tended to bring key creative personnel with them.
There were a number of specialist guilds that attempted to improve local conditions. Post-production service provider Edwin Scragg set up a local branch of the Australian Cinematographers Society; the Queensland Technicians Association functioned as a defacto union--'meetings were basically about swapping notes on people who hadn't paid them'; (12) while the local chapter of the Australian Writers' Guild provided training and information on industry is. sues. All three industry associations had, at some point during the duration of the QFC, put forward submissions to the Queensland Film Corporation suggesting how conditions within the local industry could be improved. Unfortunately none of the submissions were ever 'formally acknowledged or acted upon'. (13)
THE QUEENSLAND FILM CORPORATION 1977-1987
Inspired by the South Australian Film Corporation's example, Joh Bjelke Petersen's government constituted the Queensland Film Corporation in October 1977, 'to be in force for ten years and no longer'. The purpose of the QFC was to encourage the development of a film industry in Queensland. (14) At no point did the issues of distribution and exhibition that preoccupied those who advocated for a more eclectic and diverse national cinema perturb the film support agency; the Corporation's function was purely industry assistance-not 'interference'.
In 1979, the responsibility for the QFC was transferred from the Premier's Department to the Department of Culture, National Parks and Recreation under-the directorship of Allen Callaghan, who was one of the more powerful bureaucrats of the State Public Service. Starting out as Bjelke-Petersen's personal press secretary and media adviser, Callaghan was appointed as the Chairman of the QFC Board and onto the Board of the newly instituted Queensland Tourist and Travel Corporation. Brian Williams, a producer and prominent advocate for a WA film body, was appointed as the full time Executive Director of the QFC. The State Government's agenda was to increase industrial diversification to compensate for Queensland's decline in primary production with an emphasis on tourism. According to the departmental spin, the development of a Queensland film industry was strategically important because of the potential for popular movies to promote Queensland as a tourist destination in the international market. (15)
The QFC developed a number of strategies for industrial development. Firstly, on the premise that Queensland's climate, geography, and 'patterns of development' was ideal for film production, the agency embarked on an international marketing campaign that promised perfect weather, a wide variety of scenic locations, and a more liberal business environment capable of eradicating any unnecessary 'red tape'. (16)
Secondly, in accord with its model of a self-sustaining industry, the QFC sought to encourage private funding and less of what it saw as the undesirable bureaucratization of federal film funding (the AFC) with its tendency to promote film production of a particular aesthetic or genre. The QFC actively endorsed a submission to the Federal government recommending a suitable private investment scheme (17) and regarded the subsequent provision of the 10BA tax legislation, as a prerequisite for a more substantial role in project development.
Thirdly, to provide consistency in production, the QFC endeavoured to facilitate the establishment of studio facilities principally for television drama production. With the introduction of the 10BA tax concessions the QFC entertained a number of private proposals that failed to come to fruition, ostensibly, according to local newspaper reports, because of the Hawke Labor Government's scale back of 10BA. (18) The long awaited opportunity finally arrived in 1986 when Dino De Laurentiis and his new Australian executive, Terry Jackman, approached the Queensland Government with a proposal to build a production complex on the Gold Coast as a subsidiary to his expanding film production and distribution interests.
The De Laurentiis Entertainment Group (DEG) already owned a studio complex in Wilmington, North Carolina, and had recently acquired Embassy Pictures with its film library as the vehicle for establishlng worldwide film and video distribution. By moving to Australia, De Laurentiis' aim was to develop more international content by accessing Australian investment and by taking advantage of Australia's cheaper production environment. The move also gave the company access to what had become a significant Asia Pacific market for American film. (19) In turn, De Laurentiis's US company, DEG, guaranteed distribution of all Australian content made or acquired through the Australian subsidiary.
With its first public offering, the DEL company raised AUS$87m, but the parent company DEG failed to survive the stock market crash of 1987 and a succession of box office losses. Without the distribution guarantee, the Australian De Laurentiis company (DEL), under the leadership of CEO Terry Jackman, ceased all production on the company's first project Total Recall and began proceedings to divorce all connections with the parent company. De Laurentiis Entertainments (DEL) was officially taken over by Village Roadshow in 1988.
The fourth strategy of the QFC was to introduce a substantial production fund that would bridge the gap between the industry and private sector. Coolangatta Gold, released in 1984 (directed by Igor Auzins), was clearly the film the QFC felt was most likely to succeed. The Hoyts/ Edgely production was run by the whiz kid of marketing, Michael Edgely, and the ex-member of the QFC, Terry Jackman, who at that time headed the Hoyts Cinema empire in Australia. The Hoyts/ Edgely alliance already had a number of resounding successes including the Man From Snowy River (George Miller, 1982), the highest grossing Australian movie of its time. The script had promise, it was locked into Hoyts cinema distribution with the potential for American/worldwide release through Hoyts relationship with Fox. (20) It featured Queensland's prime tourist location, the Gold Coast, with its glamorous beach lifestyle, and promoted a major sporting event--the Australian Ironman Contest, starring Queensland's own sporting hero Grant Kenny. The film, unfortunately, was a box office failure. (21)
Buddies (Arch Nicholson, 1984) was the only feature film originating from Queensland to have any substantial critical acclaim, winning the AFI Award for Best Original Screenplay. The film was based on the story of two 'buddies' working the gemfields of Central Queensland. As a departure from the established way of financing films, producer/writer John Dingwall (Sunday Too FarAway, 1975), a former Rockhampton journalist, returned to his home ground to acquire the finance through 10BA. The QFC invested $232,300 while the rest was raised through the personal networks of a former Rockhampton mayor and accountant, Rex Pilbeam. Working on strong regional loyalties, Pilbeam canvassed both small and larger investors from Central Queensland with investment units of $5,000 each. (22)
The QFC backed a number of features, television pilots and a small number of short films co-funded with the AFC. John Prescott's short film A Town Like This (1984) won the AFI Award for Short Drama in 1984; and Jackie McKimmie's short film Stations (1983) won the 1983 Greater Union Award for Short Drama, and the rare privilege of a commercial release, in tandem with Careful, He Might Hear You (Charles Schultz, 1983). Bolstered by her success with Stations, McKimmie launched into a feature film career with the ambitious 10BA project Australian Dream. Despite the somewhat satirical script in which a lead character woos the local politician, for a position within the dominant conservative political party (the Progress Party), purely out of social and financial self-interest, the QFC provided financial support for the film. (23) Released in 1986 the film was not a success. According to film critic David Stratton it was flawed by problems brought about by too small a budget. (24)
With his AFI win, Prescott launched into the production of his first feature film Bootleg (1985) on the minuscule budget of $153,000 raised from the AFC and QFC ostensibly as a short film. With an allegiance to the hard-boiled detective genre Bootleg recreated the steamy underworld of the tropical 'Deep North'. While the film has been lauded for its cinematic flair, the film has a convoluted plot line with many subplots ending up on the cutting room floor, but like Australian Dream, it is a testimony to the level of cooperation and commitment by local crews, to work on features that gave them the opportunity to showcase their creative skills. It was always hoped that such films would lead to bigger and better things.
McKimmie's semi-autobiographical script 'Making Films in Parodyse' (25) suggests that the lack of experienced producers was a major source of frustration in her attempts to work as a feature writer/ director. There were also fundamental problems for regional film-makers in accessing professional training, work experience or opportunities to make alliances with the people who could help in their career. This was further exacerbated by the QFC's earlier reticence in promoting short film production or establishing any form of infrastructure that would engender a more sustaining culture of lowbudget production. The QFC attempted to redress this problem belatedly by setting up the Queensland Screen Training Program in association with the AFTRS in 1985, just two years before it was due to be disbanded in 1987 under the terms of its sunset clause.
By 1986, the embezzlement scandal involving Callaghan and QFC office administrator Helen Sweeny had made the headlines. The office of the QFC was reduced to Brian Williams seeing the Corporation through to its inevitable conclusion. Given more autonomy, Williams supported the AFC's No Frills Fund in 1986 with a contribution of $10,000. He also supported the QLD Australian Teachers of Media (ATOM) initiative--the Young Film-makers Awards--which still exists today as the Pacific Film and Television Commission's annual showcase event--The Warner Roadshow Movieworld New Film-makers Awards. In its final year the QFC contributed another $15,000 towards the AFC's second round of the No Frills Fund. Ironically, the low-budget shorts that were produced from the first two rounds were precisely the forms of underground production the National/Liberal Coalition government so despised. With the disbandment of the QFC, Williams returned to Perth making no further contribution to Queensland film-making.
OPPOSITIONAL FILM MOVEMENTS
Richard Keys, once Project Officer with the AFC, recalls very little collaboration between the QFC and the Creative Development Branch of the AFC. The QFC was established on a short-term view that did not include support for what was perceived as minority forms of screen culture that would remain dependent on government subsidization. The line was drawn. Industry or no industry, the corporation was to be dismantled in 1987. 'We will support but not subsidise', said Callaghan. (26)
Furthermore, the Bjelke-Petersen government was authoritarian and conservative. Government policy was construed through a framework that was intolerant to youth culture, feminism, homosexuality, or any issues that deviated from 'traditional family values'. The Queensland Government was also incurring a national and international notoriety for its stand against land rights, its uncompromizing and ruthless approach to industrial disputes, its flagrant collusion with private interests, its disregard for civil liberties, environmental and heritage issues. Within this politically repressive environment, the counter-culture radicalism of the 1960s and 1970s continued to have a strident edge well into the 1980s, whereas in other states these movements were largely accepted into the status quo. Many people who wanted to further their careers in the creative arts migrated overseas or interstate, denuding creative capacity and furthering a kind of siege mentality amongst those who stayed.
Yet despite the many obstacles, Brisbane's counter culture did find avenues of expression that were stridently antiestablishment and subversive. Stephen Stockwell, programme coordinator and presenter for 4ZZZ, and as an active member of Brisbane Independent Filmmakers (1981-1986) explored the underground culture of music and political dissent on super 8. In 1985 he made a super 8 documentary on the destruction of South Brisbane during the development of the Expo site on proceeds from the first round of the No Frills Fund.
In the same funding round of the No Frills Fund, Mark Bracken, a 4ZZZ radio personality, made ZZZ--The Movie an energetic, expressionistic super 8 celebration of the same subversive stance that suffused the cultural milieu of ZZZ and its listenership. Promoted on ZZZ the premier screening was a 'block-buster' event staged at West End's Rialto Theatre. The 'stars' arrived by limousine. The footpath overflowed with jubilant fans, and the theatre was jam packed with an enthusiastic audience that rocked in the aisles.
Kerry O'Rourke, a 4ZZZ journalist, wrote, produced and directed the 16mm, 45minute documentary The Road: Voices from Prison inspired by 4ZZZ's involvement with the Prisoner's Action Group who ran an 'Inside Info' programme over the ZZZ airwaves. As prisoners could tune in with their portable radios, the programme was a strategic element in the prisoners uprising at Brisbane's Maximum Security Prison.
Damien Ledwich, a graphic designer, 4ZZZ co-worker and editor of the satirical newspaper titled Cane Toad Times won a number of festival awards with his first animation film Feral Television, released in 1990. Many of the film-makers involved with 4ZZZ had some form of contact with the Brisbane Community Arts Centre, regarded as the hub of local alternative screen culture.
THE BRISBANE COMMUNITY ARTS CENTRE
The FTVRB of the Australia Council, in 1974-75, actively encouraged the establishment of a local following of independent film-makers as part of a national network, subsidizing the set up of the Brisbane Community Arts Centre in Edward Street. (27) As with other states, these groups--Video Access, the Brisbane Film-makers Co-op and the Women's Film and Video Group--shared the vision of a film-making resource base that would encourage low budget production and exhibition. In that same year, the Federal Minister for Tourism and Recreation approved a grant of $370,500 to renovate the building to include a resource centre modeled on the South Australian Media Resource Centre (28) and the FTVRB agreed to subsidize the establishment of an AFl Cinema. (29) At its official opening in 1981, the centre presented a theatre space, restaurant, gallery spaces, music studio, workshop areas, a Media Resource floor and a ground floor cinema space, known as the Centre Cinema.
In 1982, the Centre received a grant from the AFC of $45,000 to furbish the cinema with seating, while the QFC matched ' the Commonwealth contribution with $45,000 for the purchase of a double, head 35mm and 16mm projector. The QFC's involvement was predicated on the need for screening facilities for previews and works-in-progress by producers and directors--a facility that was lacking in Queensland at that time. In a newspaper article reporting the opening of the cinema, Callaghan carefully distanced the QFC's involvement from any notion of cultural radicalism. The cinema was to be an alternative venue 'but not in the sense that it was an outlet for underground films'. (30)
While the Video Access and Film-maker's Coop organizations disappeared from the scene by the late 1970s, (31) local production activity continued in the more artisan forms of independent film-making such as the newly formed Brisbane Independent Film-makers. BIF member Debra Beattie (1996) recalled a particularly lively organization from the late 1970s through to the early 1980s, engaged in making shorts with little funds but with considerable collaborative effort. (32) Wayne Moore's Meatheads which won the Greater Union Award for Best Short Drama, 1980, made on a short film grant from the Creative Development Branch of the AFC, was largely cast and crewed by members of the Brisbane Independent Film-makers.
Despite being the only organization representative of the local independent production community, BIF struggled on, subsisting on fund-raising benefits, occasional AFC grants for screenings and workshops, and the hiring out of equipment. (33) The medium of super 8 was to have critical importance in this culture of subsistence.
In 1985, a committee (including Aggie Read, Jackie McKimmie, BCAC Manager Edwin Relf, and Cinema Manager, Kerry O'Rourke) representing FAVOR (Film and Video Organizational Resource) approached the QFC and the AFC for funds to resurrect the Film and Video Resource concept, specifically to address the problems of 'isolation, workshop coordination, and resource development'. (34) The AFC cooperated by providing $1,000 to conduct an assessment of the film cultural scene in Brisbane, and despite the expected knock-back by the QFC there was some optimism that the AFC would be forthcoming with additional assistance. As expected, FAVOR's request of $19,845 from the QFC was rejected. The AFC in turn rejected the proposal on the grounds that it did not have the support of the local state agency.
Brisbane Community Arts continued to have some sporadic input into local film culture hosting the Film Facts Workshop for women film-makers which was later to become the genesis of the Queensland organization of Women in Film and Television Inc (Qld).
Unfortunately increasing rents meant that eventually the Centre Cinema was handed over to private concerns, while the Brisbane Independent Film-makers moved its headquarters to an inner-city precinct (between George, and Little George Street) earmarked for demolition. This location was also the venue for an inner-city branch of the Commonwealth Youth Support Scheme (CYSS) which ran workshop programmes for unemployed youth, and the site of an eclectic mix of artists attracted by the cheap rents. For a brief moment it was a vibrant hub of youth subcultures supporting a range of media from fashion, visual arts, music to film-making, cheap eating places and a nightclub. Participants of the Film Facts Workshop documented the historic shop fronts and local businesses on 16mm which later became incorporated into a short documentary titled City for Sale, 1986. (35) With the destruction of the shops and buildings in 1986, the artists dispersed and the Brisbane Independent Film-makers took up a brief occupancy in the rooms of the historic People's Palace, before moving back to the Brisbane Community Arts Centre in 1988. The now large vacant block on George Street, remains a car park to this day.
The QFC pursued a film industry model at odds with the framework of support instituted by the Creative Development Branch of the AFC with little understanding of the role that alternative practices in film-making and exhibition could play in the creative development of film-. makers in a region where there were few opportunities for formal training or apprenticeships. Although the independent film-making community may have been traditionally concerned with political advocacy, or non-mainstream forms of film-making, in other states, government funding for production and the ensuing need for accountability became the primary means to this sector's professionalization. In Brisbane, a lack of institutional legitimacy and financial support isolated the community of film-makers from the formal networks of national screen culture, and from the local community of professional practitioners who, though generous with resources and advice, had little in common with those they regarded as essentially creative enthusiasts.
The consequences were most apparent with the changes in the funding environment in the late 1980s to a system that was tied to market demand with pre-sales and the establishment of the Film Finance Corporation. Film-makers in Queensland generally lacked track records in television production, feature or artisan film-making at a time when the commissioning environment was becoming increasingly conservative and complex--demanding more expertise, credentials, and less risk whether in talent or programming ideas. Local production facilities had little consistency in the long form, higher budgeted productions that made it possible to upgrade on equipment resources and technology. Although local universities had a number of production courses, the 'rapid eclipse of geographical localism in national broadcasting' (36) and the lack of production enterprises meant there were no obvious career paths in film and television production for tertiary graduates. The only viable legacy of the QFC that promised employment and consistency in production was the Oxenford Studios owned by Village Roadshow and its partner Time Warner.
In an article published in 1993, Julie James Bailey presented a snapshot of a regional production community in discord over the direction it should take in industry development. (370 She suggested that, despite the government rhetoric in support of a Queensland film industry based on traditional arguments for cultural self-determination, Queensland was developing an industry model based on offshore production that had little to do with the specificities of its physical location. In parallel to this was the co-existence of a severely marginalized community of film-makers who identified with past models of industry development that were no longer applicable in a policy environment engaged with a more mature industry built on 20 years of government patronage. This regional and cultural divide between a Brisbane-based production community attempting to establish a foothold within an increasingly competitive domestic environment, and the Gold Coast industry dependent on the economic largesse of predominately North American-based production, has shaped the landscape of Queensland screen culture for the next decade.
This article has been refereed.
(1) Bruce Molloy, 'Screensland: The Construction of Queensland in Feature Films'. in J. Dawson and B. Molloy, eds, Queens/and Images: in Film and Television, University of Qld Press, Brisbane, 1990, pp. 66-77.
(2) For example, Tom Zubrycki's Friends and Enemies (1987)followed the bitter and desperate struggle of striking SEQEB workers against the Queensland Government during power blackouts in 1985; the MacDougalls' documentary Takeover (1980) focused ors the political struggles of Queensland's Indigenous Aurukun communities who were forced from their homes in Cape York. Ian David's docudrama scripts Police State (Chris Noonan, 1989) and the docudrama Joh's Jury (Ken Cameron, 1992) was based on Queensland political events, while Charles Schultz's tongue-in-cheek feature Goodbye Paradise (1982) was no doubt inspired by contemporary perceptions of the Gold Coast lifestyle and politics.
(3) In 1986, QFC Chairman Alien Callaghan was charged with appropriating more than $100,000 in corporation funds. He was convicted and jailed for appropriating over $43,000 in 1985. A week later, former corporation secretary Helen Sweeney was jailed for 18 months for dishonestly applying for her own use of nearly $11,000 of corporation funds. As an added twist to the saga, the Minister for Justice ordered an inquest into the death of an officer of the Auditor General's Department who was found dead in his car in 1985. He had been investigating the QFC and government funds misuse at the time. Despite demands from the Opposition, the Auditor General's Report was never released.
(4) Tom O'Regan, 'Of the Deep North ... By the Deep North ... For the Deep North', in J. Dawson and B. Molloy, op. cit. p. 105.
(5) See for example, Tim Rowse, Arguing the Arts, Penguin Books, Australia, 1985; and Sue Ward, 'Access TV. It's here ... but why are we ignoring it?' in C. Spurgeon, ed., Cultural Cross Roads: Conference Papers, The Communications Law Centre, 1998, pp. 1-9.
(6) Tom O'Regan, Australian Television Culture, Allen and Unwin, Sydney, 1993.
(7) Christopher Beck, Or' Air.' 25 years of Television in Queensland, One-Tree Hill Publications, Brisbane, 1984.
(8) O'Regan, op. cit. p. 29.
(9) David McRobbie, 'Monty Morris and the Film Centre', in Dawson and Molloy, op cit. pp. 21-8.
(10) Jonathan Dawson made only one other feature film--Ginger Meggs (Jonathan Dawson, 1982).
(11) See lan Stocks, 'Dick Marks: Markism in Queensland' in Dawson and Molloy, op.cit, pp. 49, 50.
(12) Interview with producer/cinematographer Wendy Rogers 6.8.96.
(13) Letter to Premier Mike Ahern 26.2.88 reprinted in Sue Pavasaris, Queensland Film and Television Industries: Current Problems and Future Options, Queensland Media Network and the AFC, Brisbane, 1988.
(14) Queensland State Legislative Assembly, Queensland Film Industry Development Act, no.45, 1977.
(15) Daily Telegraph, 'Qld plans movies as a tourist lure', 31 January 1977; and Sandra Hall, 'Qld takes the plunge', in Bulletin, 18 December 1979, p. 65.
(16) Elizabeth Johnston, 'A reel pitch', in The Australian, 25 July 1979, p. 8.
(17) The QFC Board member Ron Parkes became chairman of a committee of State Corporations and the AFC, which drafted the proposal to the federal government recommending a suitable private investment scheme. See Chairman's Report QFC Annual Report 1979-80.
(18) See, for example, Tony Grant-Taylor, 'Major Studio at Kooralbyn under study' in Australian Financial Review, 18 May 1982; Courier Mail, '$15m movie studio for Qld', 21 February, 1983; and Courier Mail 'Film Studio on hold over tax', 25 July 1983.
(19) David Hay, 'Hooray for Hollywood (Qld)', National Times on Sunday, 26 October 1986.
(20) See Interview with Terry Jackman, Cinema Papers no. 14 October 1977, pp. 131-3, 189.
(21) Film analyst Stephen Crofts suggested that this was largely due to 'Edgeiy's waning reputation ... and many critics of the film and of Queensland'. See 'The Coolangatta Gold: Men and Boys on the Gold Coast', in Dawson and Molloy, op, cit. p, 21.
(22) Tony Nelson, 'Buddies combine for movie bank', in Courier Mail, 6 July 1982.
(23) May Colbert, 'Dream maker: Jackie McKimmie writer and director', in Cinema Papers, no. 56, March, 1986, p. 14,
(24) David Stratton, The Avocado Plantation: Boom and Bust in the Australian Film Industry, Pan McMillan, Sydney, 1990, pp. 310-11.
(25) Jackie McKimmie, 'Making Films in Parodyse', in Dawson and Molloy, op. cit. pp. 51-63.
(26) Hall, op.cit. p. 65.
(27) See Pat Laughren and .Sue Ward, 'Independent Film-making in Queensland', in Dawson and Molloy, op. cit. pp. 132-144.
(28) Brisbane Community Arts Centre, Report to Australia Council of meeting to appoint the Boardof Trustees, 14 August 1975.
(29) Brisbane Community Arts Centre, Letter from Lachlan Shaw FRTVB 22 October 1975.
(30) Courier Mail, 'For movies we're perfect', 30 September 1982.
(31) Perhaps the initial reason for the collapse of the two organizations was the departure of Bronwyn Barwell, one of the key organizers of both Video Access and the Brisbane Filmmakers' Co-op. She had moved to Sydney. However it was a pattern that was repeated over the years, The lack of funding at the state level meant that individuals quickly burnt out, organizations collapsed to re-emerge under a new name with a more contemporary rationale and agenda.
(32) Members of BIF included Peter-Gray, Peter Cox, Wayne Moore, Mick Fanning, Janet Lane and Peter Nehros.
(33) BIF did finally receive operational funding from the AFC in 1989 after the establishment of the Queensland Film Development
(34) Interview with Wendy Rogers 1996.
(35) City for Sale (1986) was produced and directed by Wendy Rogers and co-directed and edited by Susan Ward. It was funded by the No Frills Fund.
(36) Stuart Cunningham, 'Regionalism in Audio-visual Production: the case of Queensland', in Queensland Review, no. 1(1) June, 1994, p. 52.
(37) Julie James Bailey, 'A Queensland Film Industry. What is it? Who needs it?' in Culture and Policy, no. 5, 1993.
Sue Ward completed her PhD thesis on regionalism and industrial development within the Australian film and television industries taking the Queensland experience as her case study. She is employed as a lecturer at Griffith University and is currently researching aspects of the international film industry in Queensland.…