THIS paper is based on a study trip funded by Inwent at Mannheim, Germany. A two-week training for TVET promoters was headed by the writer as Board Member with the TESDA Deputy Director, Regional Directors and two private implementors of dual training from PNOC and Del Monte Philippines.
What is Dual Technology?
The Philippine passed the Dual Training Act in 1994 under President Fidel V. Ramos. Dual technology covers theory and practice. It has a competency based curriculum divided into learning modules. After so many years, there are now many government and private schools that practice dual training in the different regions in the Philippines.
To the advantage of the trainees under this system, employment and placement is easier as trainees are absorbed by the training partner.
In TESDA we have a Dual Training System (DTS).
DTS is a training system which combines theoretical and practical learning. It is dual system because learning takes place alternately in two places school and enterprise.
For the trainees, DTS means a wide range of employment opportunities. For the company, DTS is a guarantee for good business and long-term growth. For the school, DTS assures a high placement rate for graduates and institutional prestige.
With the Philippines growing population of 84 million which will be 100 million by 2020, jobs will be scarcer for university graduates. In the Philippines, technical-vocational graduates are looked down as inferior but these graduates can easily be employed practicing their skills or by getting jobs abroad. Dual tech graduates sometimes earn more than their university counterparts.
The problem with the Philippine Dual Training Act is that industry is willing to accept students as trainees but not as workers. But the labor sector demands that trainees be paid the minimum wage, thus, making it difficult to implement successfully and widely the dual-tech law.
In the Philippines, the option of high school graduates is either the short courses or university.
Historical Background of Dual Technology in Germany
In Germany since the Middle Ages, the traditional practice was only incompany training. Costs were borne by the companies and training was regulated by Chambers. After 1950 it was realized by government that increasing theory can not be taught in workshops.
Since 1920 there was a clamor to place in-company training under the auspices of the state. In the 1927 Vocational Training Act, vocational learning was a venue with the growing influence of the trade unions.
After 1950 it was realized by government that increasing theory can not be taught in workshops.
Vocational schools were established with 80 percent incompany training and 20 percent attendance in vocational school. Vocational schools were run and paid by government. Finally in 1969, a new Vocational Training Act was passed. This Vocational Training Act 1) places the training in the hands of firms and chambers, thus emphasizing the principle of self-government; 2) pays tribute the "Dual System" as a whole; and 3) covers both the public and private sphere of vocational education.
In 1975 there was a change an enlarged model of the 80 percent-20 percent. Since there was a demand for increasing specialization of small and medium companies An Inter-Company Training Center (ICTC) was established by the chambers supported by public funds. The new model was 65 percent practice, 25 percent theory, and 10 percent ICTC.
The German Educational System
In Germany, there are three types of post secondary education. They are: University of cooperative education (Berufsakademie) 4 half-years Basic Theory and practice and 2-half-years theory and practice or equivalent to six semesters of 3 years. The other is university of applied science (Fachhochschule) has eight semester or four years, includes internship of one year. The third is the university (Diploma Magister Staatsexame) with Basic studies of four semesters plus six to eight semesters.
The system in Germany works for expertise in crafts and trade. The students earn diploma and are immediately hired by their sponsor companies. It is not the government that sets up this education system but the companies, chambers and craft guilds. It takes two to three and a half years to complete a dual training course. But the companies (who grant the scholarships) prepare for their future employment needs thru this scheme.
In TESDA we have what we call competency assessment (trade test) to get certified. In Germany to practice a craft, be it driving, hair dressing, hotel services, auto mechanics, you must have certification diploma.
in the Philippines, our workers e.g. mechanics, electricians, welders, drivers, beauticians, etc. practice the skill without any formal training or practice.
Our companies, on the other hand, hire self-instructed and poorly skilled workers. They take a chance on accidents or malpractice because they do not require skilled certified workers. In driving alone, many accidents occur because the driver has only an LTO test which can easily be obtained through some kind of negotiation.
In Germany, you can opt for a vocational course and move on to university but then having completed Berufsakademie and Fachhochschule courses, one is readily employed and working on a learned craft. In the Philippines, for this system to work, TESDA and CHED have to decide on an equivalency program for students to move from vocational courses to university.
Having an equivalency program will allow techvoc graduates to enroll in university without losing their earned units or years of schooling.
It is presumed that Philippine universities will not allow this unless the curriculum for tech-voc courses register the same required subjects, units and level of instruction.
Accreditation for Vocational and Technical Institutions
The Government of the Philippines has announced plans for the establishment of national accreditation program on a voluntary basis for vocational/technical institutions. The focus of the accreditation program is on programs, curriculum and strengthening educationindustry links. It is endeavoring to reconcile individual institutions objectives with the industrial and agricultural needs of the country.
A Ladderized Program for Engineering
The Technological University of the Philippines was raised to university status in 1978; it was previously known as the Philippine College of Arts and Trades. UP is responsible or the administration of three technician institutes (Manila, Visayas and Iligan), 226 national schools of arts and trades and 10 regional manpower training centers; it also runs a secondary school which offers technical courses. The Government of the Philippines envisages TUP at the apex of a future national polytechnic system, and is attempting to unify and integrate all levels of technical and vocational education.
Another initiative in this field has been the offering of a prototype of articulated awards, forming a complete "ladder" curriculum. For example, a one-year junior electricians Certificate program may be followed by a oneyear senior-electricians Certificate program, then a one-year electrical engineering technology Diploma program and a twoyear Bachelor of Engineering program in electrical engineering, as part of a sequence of qualifications. This ladder of awards has so far been offered in a limited number of institutions, including the Polytechnic University of the Philippines in Manila.
The German Government Certification/TESDA Certification
TESDA has promulgated training regulation that industry now recognizes as a need for hiring skilled workers. There are 29 Priority Regulations promulgated across 15 priority sectors. These sectors are Maritime, Construction, Refrigeration and Airconditioning, Metals Engineering, Land Transport, Automotive Land Transport, Tourism Footwear, Agri and Fishery, Information Technology, Health and other Community Development Services, Garments, Processed Food/Beverages, Decorative Crafts and Furniture Fixture.
New occupational titles for IT are Call Center Agents, Medical Transcriptionist and for Entertainment, Performing Arts (Magician). Our performing artists and magicians cannot be hired abroad without a TESDA accreditation.
In the Philippine setting, the above training program may vary from 26 months to 1-2 years depending on the school or the training institute. In Germany it is 3.5 years.
In the past it was the Technical Advisory Panel (TAP) and Technical Expert Panel (TEP) that worked on the training manuals for approval by the TESDA Board.
Now it is the Industry Working Groups (TWG) that have revised some of the manuals; as of this writing, there are the Hotel Industry, Health Care, Information Technology and Agri-Fisheries Industry.
The Dual Training System Update
From 1997 to the present the number of schools and companies under the Dualized Training Program (DTP) are:…