Byline: Tom Ramstack, THE WASHINGTON TIMES
University of Maryland economist Thomas C. Schelling yesterday won the 2005 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for demonstrating how game theory applies to the interactions of people and nations.
He shared the award with mathematician Robert J. Aumann of Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The two worked separately on game theory but knew each other.
"I've been doing this for over 50 years, and it's hard to find a shorthand way to describe my interests," Mr Schelling said yesterday. "But in my mind, it all comes together, and what links this work is my fascination with how people react to and influence others, as individuals and as nations."
Game theory combines mathematics and social science to explain how actions and decisions interact in the choices people make. One principle of the theory is that nations can achieve long-term success through cooperation instead of confrontation, even if they must make sacrifices.
Mr. Schelling's theories helped to shape Cold War policy, particularly the concept of "mutually assured destruction" in an exchange of nuclear weapons.
"My main source of optimism is that the Soviet Union faced some of its gravest challenges without ever resorting to nuclear weapons," Mr. Schelling said. "It was not a foregone conclusion they would honor this nuclear taboo with their backs to the wall."
Mr. Schelling, 84, retired last year but retains the title of professor emeritus at the University of Maryland and at Harvard University.
He earned degrees in economics from the University of California at Berkeley in 1944 and Harvard in 1951.
During his career, he served as an adviser to the Truman administration and gained membership in the National Academy of Sciences. He authored eight books, including "The Strategy of Conflict" in 1960, describing how making concessions in international disputes could build trust that benefits both sides.
He taught at Harvard and Yale before joining the University of Maryland's Department of …