OCTOBER 23, 1945--Brooklyn Dodgers sign Jackie Robinson and send him to the team's Montreal farm team. On April 15, 1947, Robinson made his debut at Ebbetts Field and became the first Black in the Major Leagues in modern times.
NOVEMBER 1, 1945--Founding of EBONY magazine marks the beginning of a new era in Black-oriented journalism.
MARCH 21, 1946--Kenny Washington signs with the Los Angeles Rams and becomes the first Black player in professional football in 13 years. Three other Blacks Woody Strode of the Rams and Ben Willis and Marion Motley of the Cleveland Browns signed in the same year.
JUNE 3, 1946--U.S. Supreme Court (Irene Morgan v Commonwealth of Virginia) bans segregation in interstate bus travel.
DECEMBER 5, 1946--President Harry S. Truman creates the landmark Committee on Civil Rights. In October 1947, the committee issued a formal report, "To Secure These Rights," which condemned racism in America.
JULY 26, 1948--In response to widespread Black protests and a threat of civil disobedience, President Truman issues two executive orders ending racial discrimination in federal employment and requiring equal treatment in the armed services.
SEPTEMBER 22, 1950--Ralph J. Bunche, the first Black to win a Nobel Prize, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his successful mediation of the Israeli-Palestine conflict.
NOV. 1, 1951--Publication of first issue of Jet magazine by Johnson Publishing Company marks the beginning of a new era of weekly news coverage in Black America.
MAY 17, 1954--In a unanimous decision, the Supreme Court outlaws segregation in the public school system. Landmark Brown v. Board of Education decision sounded death knell for legal segregation in the United States.
MAY 10, 1955--Chuck Berry records "Maybelline," which played major role in development of rock 'n' roll. Berry and other Black stars, notably Muddy Waters and Little Richard, were the major musical influences on the Beatles and other White groups.
DECEMBER 5, 1955--Historic Montgomery Bus Boycott begins in Alabama. Rosa Parks sparked the boycott when she refused (December 1) to give her bus seat to a White man. The Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. was elected president of the boycott organization.
MARCH 6, 1957--Independence celebration of Ghana marks the beginning of the end for colonial rule in Africa.
AUGUST 29, 1957--U.S. Congress passes Civil Rights Act of 1957, the first federal civil rights legislation since 1875.
SEPT. 25, 1957--Nine Little Rock, Ark., schoolchildren are escorted to Central High School by federal troops, ending efforts to thwart court-ordered integration.
DECEMBER 17, 1959--The founding of Motown Records helps change the understanding, marketing and promotion of Black popular music.
FEBRUARY 1, 1960--Four North Carolina A&T students begin the Sit-in Movement at the lunch counter of a Greensboro, N.C. five-and-dime store.
MAY 4, 1961--Thirteen "Freedom Riders" begin bus trip through the South to test compliance with laws banning segregation in interstate transportation. Black and White riders were bombed and savagely beaten, but their movement exposed segregation in interstate transportation facilities.
OCT. 1, 1962--Escorted by 12,000 federal troops, James Meredith enters the University of Mississippi, ending the state's defiance of federal law.
JUNE 12, 1963--Medgar Evers, NAACP field secretary in Mississippi, is assassinated in front of his home.
AUGUST 28, 1963--250,000 people participate in the March on Washington, the biggest civil rights demonstration ever.
SEPT. 15, 1963--Four Black girls are killed in the bombing of Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham.
JULY 2, 1964--Civil Rights Bill, with public accommodations and fair employment sections, is signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson.
AUGUST 20, 1964--President Johnson signs Economic Opportunity Act, initiating the "war on poverty."
FEBRUARY 21, 1965--Malcolm X, charismatic Black nationalist leader, is assassinated at the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem. Three Blacks were later convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment.
MARCH 21, 1065--Thousands of marchers, led by Martin Luther King Jr. and protected by federal troops, complete the first leg of the Selma-to-Montgomery march.
AUGUST 6, 1965--President Johnson signs the Voting Rights Bill that authorized the suspension of literacy tests. Federal examiners were sent to the South under provisions of the bill.
AUGUST 11, 1965--An insurrection starts in the Watts section of Los Angeles and rages for six days. The Watts insurrection was the first in a wave of major disturbances that forced a national reappraisal of racism in America.
JANUARY 18, 1966--Robert Weaver is sworn in as secretary of housing and urban development and becomes the first Black member of a presidential cabinet.
OCTOBER 2, 1967--Thurgood Marshall becomes the first Black member of the U.S. Supreme Court.
NOV. 7, 1967--Carl Stokes of Cleveland and Richard Hatcher of Gary become the first Blacks elected mayors of major U.S cities.
FEB. 29, 1968--The National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders (the Kerner Commission) says in formal report that White racism is the root cause of the riots in American cities.
APRIL 4, 1968--Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated by White sniper in Memphis, Tenn. The assassination triggered a national crisis with rioting in more than 100 cities and calls for racial renewal and repentance. President Johnson declared a day of mourning.
APRIL 10, 1968--U.S. Congress passes Civil Rights Bill banning racial discrimination in the housing market and making it a crime to interfere with civil rights workers.
JAN. 23-30, 1977--The ABC-TV dramatization of Alex Haley's Roots becomes the highest-rated drama in TV history and sparks a national "roots" craze.
NOV. 2, 1983--President Ronald Reagan changes his mind and signs a bill designating the third Monday in January of each year as a federal holiday in honor of Martin Luther King Jr. Millions celebrated the first holiday on January 20, 1986.
NOV. 3, 1983--The Rev. Jesse L. Jackson, president of Operation PUSH, announces that he will run for U.S. president. His campaign generated unprecedented fervor. In his second bid for the presidency in 1988, he captured four state primaries.
SEPT. 20, 1984--The Cosby Show premieres on NBC-TV and changes the image of African-Americans and the viewing habits of White Americans.
SEPT. 21, 1989--Gen. Colin L. Powell is confirmed by the senate as chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
NOV. 7, 1989--L. Douglas Wilder of Virginia becomes the first Black elected governor.
JANUARY 24, 1991--The spreading AIDS epidemic is called a major health threat to African-Americans by the U.S. Center for Disease Control. Officials said the disease, which forced a major re-evaluation of sexual relationships, was the leading cause of death among African-American women 15 to 44 years old in New York state and New Jersey. African-American leaders cited the danger of addicts using infected needles and called for safe sex practices.
MARCH 3, 1991--Videotaped beating of motorist Rodney G. King by White Los Angeles police officers sparks an international uproar. Four White officers were indicted on March 14.
JUNE 27, 1991--Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall announces his retirement and decries the increasingly conservative direction of the Court. On July 1, President Bush nominated Clarence Thomas, a conservative Black on the U.S. District of Columbia Court of Appeals, to fill the vacant seat.
APRIL 29, 1992--The acquittal of four White police officers in the Rodney King case sparks the biggest U.S. riot since the urban explosions during the Civil War. Federal troops were called out to quell the rebellion. The L.A. Coroner's Office said 58 persons died during the disturbances.
MAY 18, 1993--Rita Dove became the first Black named poet laureate of the United States.
MAY 9, 1994---After an unprecedented vote turnout in South Africa's first all-race elections on April 26-29, South Africa's new National Assembly unanimously elect Nelson Mandela president of South Africa.
OCTOBER 16, 1995--The Million Man March, organized by Nation of Islam leader Minister Louis Farrakhan and a coalition of religious and civil rights leaders, is held in Washington, D.C. The march was repeated last October.
DECEMBER 17, 1996--Kofi Annan, longtime diplomat from Ghana, named secretary general of the United Nations.
SEPTEMBER 11, 1999--At 17, Serena Williams became the first Black female to win the U.S. Open tennis title since Althea Gibson's historic 1958 victory.
JULY 11, 2000--The Rev. Vashti Murphy McKenzie is elected the first woman bishop of the AME Church.
FEBRUARY 19, 2002--Vonetta Flowers (with teammate Jill Bakken) won a gold medal in the women's bobsled event at the Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City. She became the first Black athlete to win a gold medal at the Winter Olympics.
MARCH 26, 2002--The first class-action lawsuit for reparations was filed in U.S. District Court in New York City on behalf of descendants of African-American slaves.
APRIL 12, 2003--Army Specialist Shoshana Johnson, the first Black female Prisoner of War, is rescued by U.S. Marines. She was one of seven soldiers captured by forces in Iraq.
OCTOBER 26, 2005--Ken Williams, general manager of the Chicago White Sox, hoists the championship trophy after the team he put together won the World Series in a four-game sweep against the National League champion Houston Astros. The White Sox hadn't won a World Series title since 1917.…