Scots Who Helped Change the World; There Are Few Places on Earth Which Have Not Been Helped by a Bit of Tartan Expertise

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1 ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL (1847-1922)

A super-inventor and creator of the telephone. Edinburgh-born Bell emigrated to Canada aged 23 before settling in Boston, Massachusetts. He amassed 18 patents, shared another 12 and co-founded the National Geographic Society in 1888.

2 JAMES BRAID (1795-1860)

The surgeon dabbled in putting people into a trance to make their operations less painful. Born at Rylawhouse in Fife, Braid was first to coin the term "hypnosis".

3 SIR THOMAS BRISBANE (1773-1860) Born in Largs, Brisbane was a soldier and astronomer. He was governor of New South Wales and the Australian city of Brisbane is named after him.

4 SIR DAVID BREWSTER (1781-1868) He worked with polarised light and invented the kaleidoscope - a device marvelled at by kids everywhere.

5 ANDREW CARNEGIE (1835-1919)

This Dunfermline boy's fortune came from iron and steelworks in the US. His gifts, such as libraries, stand to this day.

6 JAMES CHALMERS (1782-1853)

The inventor of the adhesive postage stamp, this Dundonian was also a bookseller and publisher.

7 SIR HUGH DALRYMPLE (1700-1753)

This North Berwick landowner allowed agriculture to spread to unworkable wetlands by inventing the hollow-pipe drainage system.

8 ALEXANDER FLEMING (1881-1955) This genius, from Darvel in Ayrshire, created penicillin. His discovery in 1928 altered the way the world treated bacterial infection.

9JAMES "PARAFFIN" YOUNG (1811-1883)

Glasgow chemist patented his process of extracting oil from coal and shale, and sold paraffin for heat and light around the world.

10 KIRKPATRICK MACMILLAN ( 1813-1878) In his blacksmith's bothy at Keir in Dumfries-shire he invented the bicycle. But he didn't patent his invention and others cashed in.

11 sir william 11arrol

(1839-1913) Responsible for one of the most I iconic structures in Scotland - the Forth Rail Bridge - and also the replacement for the rail route across the Tay.

12 JOHN WITHERSPOON18 (1723-1794) Born in Haddington, Witherspoon, emigrated to America in 1768. He fought for American independence.

13 CHARLES MACINTOSH 13(1766-1843) Glasgow and rain go together so it's no surprise the world's first raincoat was invented in the city. Charles discovered that a by-product of tar could be used to create a waterproof fabric and as a result the "Mac" was born.

14 JOHNloGie BAIRD (1888-1946) Everyone knows Helensburgh-born Baird as the inventor of mechanical television, but he also patented fibre optics and dabbled in radar.

15 ALLAN PINKERTON10(1819-1884)

The world's first private eye, he formed the Chicago-based Pinkerton Detective Agency and helped foil an assassination attempt on US President Abraham Lincoln.

16 JAMES WATT(1736-1819)

The watt, a unit of power, is named after this mechanical engineer from Greenock. …