In Southern California, libraries have sprung up on seven of the 18 small American Indian reservations in rural San Diego County. These unique facilities generally struggle to survive in harsh reservation economies which have been further marginalized by the worst regional economic depression since the 1930s. Yet they do survive, even as surrounding local, county, and regional library systems have experienced severe fiscal cutbacks which greatly reduce library services and threaten closure of numerous rural branches. The history of Indian libraries in the region presents a striking picture of tribal self-determination and exercise of sovereignty in determining and meeting tribal information system needs. It further delineates the challenges and opportunities facing tribal populations and governments as they develop collaborative relationships with the American macro-culture. Generally, the framework for the development of these small library facilities was the amendment to the Library Services and Construction Act; however, the existence of tribal libraries did not begin with federal policy. Rather, the function of tribal and cultural libraries, if not the generally accepted form, has been a part of American Indian communities since before the Colombian interchange.
For untold centuries, Native Americans have passed their unique legacy to successive generations through an ancient but fragile chain of oral tradition. Today, within the complexity of contemporary life in the United States, this heritage of American indigenous culture is reflected in the habits, customs, and traditions of the "Knowledge Seekers," as well as the "Wisdom Keepers" who live within Native American tribes and maintain links with traditional tribal knowledge, customs, and history. Tribal Elders with knowledge of traditional Indian technology, government, natural science, folklore, religion, art, natural healing, legend, and tribal history serve as living libraries for their communities (emphasis added).
Special collections including tribal histories, material culture, early ethnographic records, and tribal governmental archives were scattered throughout the San Diego reservation country. In the early 20th century, principally in the care of hereditary leaders or their families, tribal offices, or housed haphazardly in community buildings or storehouses. Of note were collections held by a number of small missions and asistencias including Santa Ysabel, San Antonio de Pala, and Catholic chapels at Jamul, Sycuan, Pauma, and Barona. The fate of many of these collections is unknown, owing in part to the termination of many California tribes in 1953, and discontinuities in tribal government and tribal development in the termination era extending to 1971. The majority of tribal archives from the period were retained by particular reservations or were duplicated in major part at the Bureau of Indian Affairs Sub-Agency at Riverside, CA. Until the early 1970s, there was little systematic assembling of library collections at each reservation, and a comprehensive cataloging of Indian "libraries" in the county was nonexistent.
Indian Library Development
The formal and expanding entrance of Indian tribes into the realm of library development occurred in the post-termination era. Jack D. Forbes, in his early advocacy for the establishment of native-controlled information systems and repositories, proposed that American Indian people living on or near reservations had library and information needs in two broad areas. The first need was for the library services common to other ethnic groups. The second was specialized informational needs unique to the Indian population as a whole. He further defined the latter as having imbedded needs for the preservation of cultural-historical heritage. Susan Dyal's Preserving Traditional Arts: A Toolkit for Native American Communities, or Going Home: The California Indian Library Collections Manual are two sources that have assisted local San Diego County tribes in preserving invaluable collections of material culture and given guidance in locating materials of local significance. Indian populations, according to Forbes, also need information for decision-making, personal and language development, and to support and sustain tribal sovereignty and integrity. A number of government publications cover federal legislation that impacts tribes and their ability to govern independently. Access to recent rulings on gaming initiatives, repatriation, and water rights are critical to tribal self-determination. A tribe might use the Congressional Index to follow a bill through Congress or access the full text of any public law in the U.S. Code Congressional and Administrative Views.
Since the late 1970s, the Indian library experience has consistently reinforced Forbes' analysis, while adding other critical needs and considerations to the picture. American Indians required information access at a par with the American macro-culture, not just equivalent to then-emerging ethnic populations of color. Further, specialized information needs related, not only to the Indian population as a whole, but also to each specific tribe, especially as related to exercise of governmental sovereignty, recovery from termination initiatives, and programs contributing to the self-determination of each tribal and/or reservation group. This comprehensive range of information needs required that, to be optimally effective from the tribal perspective, tribal libraries should include elements akin to law libraries and research institutions, as well as significant holdings of government publications and business and finance materials. Tribes were, and are, sovereign entities similar to states, with the same needs for ready access to information. The tasks inherent in the development of adequate tribal libraries were, indeed, formidable.
The expanded view and development of library and information needs from the Indian perspective has been a long and often arduous process. The challenges of economic development, tribal capacity building, protection of land and resource rights, and numerous other issues of tribal sovereignty burgeoned in the wake of the Indian Self-Determination and Educational Assistance Act of 1975 (PL 93638). These activities were often considered higher priority than library and other service needs as they related directly to tribal survival. Ironically, these tribal initiatives and developments also increased information needs, especially those related to tribal archives, reconstruction of administrative and legal histories in support of Indian claims, and resource allocation and use. As tribal cultural, political, and economic resurgence expanded in the 1980s, Indian needs and demands for information services increased.
Increasing Needs for Information
Indians began to note that tribal information systems, especially libraries, had been marginalized: it seemed that the primary functions considered appropriate, as was often reinforced by granting agency criteria, were in the realm of cultural maintenance. However, many tribes realized that library services were essential to improvement of reservation educational attainment and development of the tribes' capacity to manage their own affairs. These realizations increased the development and expansion of educational initiatives for American Indian people on reservations and in conjunction with non-Indian education initiatives as well.
The increase in tutorial, Head Start, Title IV, and later, Title V Indian Education programs in turn fostered information needs far broader than cultural and linguistic preservation and the recording of tribal histories. Additional self-determination activities required the use of contemporary data which was often generated within and by the macro-culture. These types of information were not readily available in public or education institution libraries, thereby restricting access to critical information, often of a perishable nature.
Further, reservation, rural, and urban Indian communities were not unaffected by the dawning of the information age and changes in technology. The shift to automated systems and the proliferation of electronic information access tools acted as a further barrier to information gathering, since many tribal groups of the era were just beginning to transition from paper to electronic record-keeping. As a consequence of these and other trends both within and outside their control, American Indian communities realized that their library and information service needs were at least equivalent to those of the macro-culture. Given the specialized needs articulated by Forbes, Townlee, Pelzman, Patterson, and others, library services seemed to be more critically important. The irony for Indian communities was that not unlike other relationships between themselves and the macro-culture, need far exceeded supply of both facilities and funding, and development initiatives could not keep pace with increased needs for information and library services. Often, these needs became critical before they were perceived as critical, because Indian communities were not provided with information necessary to understanding the central role libraries might play in reservation life. In order to understand these dilemmas, one must also understand that the historical development of the Indian library experience is a fairly recent phenomenon, linked to federal policy, and generally perceived to be a luxury rather than a necessity.
Changes Slow to Occur
Where change in the Indian-library relationship occurred, it did so sporadically and slowly. As example, the Colorado River Tribes Public Library, established in 1957, was the first library in the country developed to specifically meet Indian information needs. Prior to the 1970s, a few large reservations made efforts to establish links with large public library systems, but these were poorly funded, centered around cultural maintenance, and were not linked to the larger picture of information use.
In 1971, the National Indian Education Association (NIEA) Library Project was created in order to "plan, develop, and demonstrate library programs that meet informational needs in Indian communities." Funded in large part by the Higher Education Act Title II-B of 1965, the objectives were: (1) identification of information needs; (2) implementation of demonstration programs; (3) operation of demonstration programs; and (4) evaluation. Sites selected for the project were Rough Rock Demonstration School in Arizona, the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation in North and South Dakota and the Saint Regis (Akwesasne) Mohawk Reservation in New York. Circulation statistics from all three sites indicated that use of materials exceeded the national average. All three libraries continued operation after the project was completed.
For California tribes, however, the focus of these programs was not responsive to tribal needs. As with many of the federal programs of the time, the development of new tribal institutions such as libraries favored larger reservations possessing larger populations and more complex governmental structures. For most of the Southern California tribes, a small pool of human resources, limited development of tribal administrative capacity, and reservation imperatives for survival-oriented programs precluded involvement in the NIEA Library Project. The issues of human resource and administrative capacity limitations are important to consider in the historical development of tribal libraries, since these issues continue to affect small tribes and their libraries to the present. Despite inherent problems in the funding process, some Southern California tribes and development agencies began to formulate plans for meeting information needs, in preparation for other, more appropriately focused library grant opportunities.
Also during the 1970s, the first committees within the American Library Association began looking at the special information needs of Indian people. Subsequently, the combined efforts and shared determination of Indian librarians and tribal administrators led to the 1978 White House Preconference on Indian Library and Information Services on or Near Reservations. This Pre-Conference was one of many held in preparation for the first White House Conference on Library and Information Services (WHCLIS). These first hearings uncovered the problem that, despite overwhelming need, and an understanding that information access was a critical dimension of self-determination activities, neither state nor federal agencies had accepted the responsibility for providing information services to American Indians. Among the 64 resolutions passed at the WHCLIS was a National Indian Omnibus Library Bill (NIOLB) which called for legislation to assist in developing library and information services on all Indian reservations, and included training for library staff.
In 1984, the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA), administered by the Department of Education, was amended to include a new Title IV; Library Services for Indian Tribes & Hawaiian Natives Program. Title IV incorporated 22 resolutions from the 1979 WHCLIS, including the NIOLB. This title was the first dedicated to the provision of library services for Indian people in two general categories of funding, Basic Grants and Special Project Grants. Basic Grant awards were equal in size and were available to any eligible tribe applying for them. Basic Grants could be used for library needs assessment, salaries and training of library personnel, library materials, transportation for access to library services, special library programs, and construction or renovation of library buildings. However, the minimal amount of the award, amounting to only $3,629 in fiscal 1989, either necessitated additional funding to make libraries viable, or kept operations at rudimentary levels. Special Project Grants were competitive grants awarded for the development of long-range programs planned with the involvement of a librarian.
Simultaneously with the establishment of the new title, the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Educational Research and Improvement funded a program through its Library Programs section called TRAILS (Training and Assistance for Indian Library Services). This program provided much needed training, consultation, and assistance to over 150 tribes that were establishing or enhancing libraries under this new federal program.
County Library Involvement
In 1986, personnel from the Outreach Division of the San Diego County Library (SDCL) followed up on a request from the Manzanita Band of Mission Indians to provide technical assistance and training for the establishment of Indian libraries. Shortly thereafter, the San Diego County Library began to formalize a commitment to working with other nearby reservations in order to support their efforts to provide library services to reservation residents. During 1985 and 1986, 13 of the reservations in San Diego County were awarded basic grants. Reservation representatives realized that although they were receiving money to support library operations and the acquisition of library materials. Further information was needed to set up and run a library.
It was at this point that the San Diego County Library System entered the tribal library development picture in a formalized way. The San Diego County Library consisted of 33 branches, two bookmobiles, and an administration and processing center which served a 3,822-square-mile area of unincorporated territory and 11 cities. Its stated mission was to serve all the residents of the county, includIng those living on the county's 18 Indian reservations, although service to the latter population had been fragmentary and largely through providing access to existing facilities.
Recognizing the growing need for improved Indian access to library services and responding to tribal initiatives to establish tribal library and information systems, SDCL Outreach Services set up a general workshop on the Barona reservation in March 1986. The County Library also earmarked $3,000 from its materials fund to purchase materials for outstationing on the reservations.
At the end of the workshop, SDCL trainers realized that much more training and one-on-one technical assistance would be needed. Handouts at the workshop included general publications on how to organize and operate a small library and a survey to determine the kinds of materials needed. Results from the survey indicated that the reservations needed materials in virtually every category and age level. In June 1986, the SDCL participated in a second workshop on Indian Libraries, sponsored by the California State Library. Representatives from seven reservations attended this workshop. The California State Librarian recommended in a follow-up memo that," ... county libraries offer on-site or in-library training and technical assistance to those involved in establishing tribal libraries."
As a result of this workshop, SDCL Outreach workers began assisting the Viejas Indian School in setting up a library. Used furniture from the SDCL and donated shelving and materials from other sources were employed at Viejas and Outreach staff assisted with sorting and processing books. This demonstration of concern and provision of assistance on the part of SDCL generated additional and immediate calls for assistance from other reservations. This developing collaborative relationship was built on the demonstration of commitment on the part of the SDCL and a growing trust in that institution by Indian reservation administrators. Tribal members and library developers had, at last, found a local government institution which was perceived to have no ulterior motives in assisting the tribes other than the shared objective of developing libraries for reservation use and control.
Indian Library Services Project
In 1987, the SDCL Outreach Division wrote a successful LSCA grant for the Indian Library Services Project (ILSP), whose goal was "to increase awareness of and access to library materials and services on San Diego County's Indian reservations."
ILSP objectives for the first year were to hire a project director and part-time library assistant who would complete the following tasks:
1. Working cooperatively with tribal representatives, library and information needs will be assessed on at least six reservations, and action plans for establishing library services will be developed.
2. Project staff will assist at least three reservations to set up tribal libraries, providing some bookshelves and furniture, technical assistance in ordering and processing books, and training for tribal library staff in how to operate their library.
3. In order to increase appreciation of library materials and to assist in motivating bands to participate in the project, a collection of 100 popular and reference books about Native Americans will be presented to the 10 largest (in population) reservations.
4. Using a variety of funding sources, the project will augment the book collections of six of the reservations.
5. The project staff and regular County Library staff will work to increase the awareness of library services by participating and interfacing with various educational, health, and social programs which currently exist on several reservations.
During the proposal writing process, a group of educators representing Viejas, Sycuan, Barona, Pala, Pauma, Rincon, La Jolla, and Santa Ysabel reservations was asked to serve as the project advisory board. This group, called the "Indian Educators' Learning Circle," provided proposal input and continued to offer the Indian perspective throughout the project. The ILSP Director, hired in 1988, came to the project with over seven years of experience and education related to Indian libraries. The ILSP director contacted the various tribal governments to determine the level of interest in library services and to discover which reservations had a "library space" or a developing library collection. A needs assessment instrument, expanding on the work of the California Ethnic Service Task Force Collection Evaluation Project, was used to determine collection, staffing, and facilities needs. The survey also sought information on any constraints to implementation of library services on each reservation.
Only three reservations had libraries. These "libraries" had small collections with some limited use. In its first year, ILSP focused on the three reservations (Pauma, Viejas, and Campo) which had, at a minimum, a facility, a small collection, and most importantly, a commitment to providing library services to their communities. The ILSP objective was to capitalize on existing strengths so that the first three libraries might serve as replicable models for other reservations. At this point in the ILSP implementation, three other reservations had room for library facilities but no materials, and two simply had some books in boxes. Only one reservation had a paid staff member who was only funded at quarter time.
By the end of the first year of the ILSP, five libraries were open and operational. Three libraries held grand openings and one reservation had secured an LSCA special grant. Ten core collections comprised of basic reference works and books by and about Indians were presented to reservation libraries. These collections became the source of considerable pride for tribal members as they now not only had the opportunity to read about other Indians, but also had access to information about their own people which heretofore had been limited to oral narratives or held in distant and generally inaccessible public, school, or university libraries. The significant human impact that ILSP had in its first year was illustrated by the participation of over 100 reservation children in the summer reading program. Tribal members expressed both pride and gratitude in this important library function since it was profoundly and immediately apparent that none of these children had ever participated in any reading program whatsoever.
ILSP staff discovered during the first year that time was the key component for a successful project. Establishing genuine connections based on mutual respect and trust between the reservations and ILSP staff took time. During the second quarter, although 60 visits to reservations were made, that amounted to only two visits per month per reservation. More time was needed to build relationships and confidence in the staff and in the project objectives. During ILSP's first year, tribal elected leaders changed on four different reservations and office staff changed on two. These circumstances required the development of new relationships, the education of new partners about the library and its operations, gaining acceptance of the Indian/non-Indian collaboration, and the commitment of the new leadership to continuation of this infant program of development. During this period, some reservations were challenged by environmental problems such as tornadoes, floods and forest fires, and others experienced problems of tribal governance such as funding inconsistencies, internal political disputes, and lawsuits. For those reservations, the challenges presented precluded any involvement in the library project.
The second component that ILSP staff identified as essential to the project's success was the hiring and retention of tribal members or other Indian employees in library staff positions. Clearly, local personnel would be better able to assess local information needs and to work with their own communities in developing goals and objectives. Lack of staff was attributed to two factors; absence of revenue and lack of understanding on the part of tribal leaders as to the nature of tasks performed by a library staff person. The first factor was largely outside the control of reservation administrations: scant resources had to be applied to critical staff positions and functions on the reservation, rather than to library functions which were considered somewhat of a luxury. The second factor was mitigated somewhat over the second year of the program as tribal leadership gained a greater understanding of the functions of and necessity for library facilities and competent staff.
Based on the accomplishments and lessons learned during the first year of operation, as well as new challenges presented, project staff applied for and were awarded a second grant for fiscal year 1988-89. Project staff welcomed the opportunity to "build on the relationships and structures so carefully developed in the first year." Specific library needs, uncovered in year one, could be addressed in year two. During the second year, the project would expand to more reservations, involve more non-book media, and would include a local staff component to provide more programming and service.
By the end of the second year, the Indian Library Services Project had accomplished its goal, which was to increase awareness of and access to library materials and services on San Diego County's Indian reservations. Specific project accomplishments included the establishment of six reservation libraries, the development of collections for these libraries consisting of hundreds of new and used books, clearly marked Indian book collections, historical photographs, video and audio tapes, and a variety of archival materials. The project furnished these libraries with shelving and furniture, and with display cabinets and circulation desks which were custom-made by the SDCL carpenter. In addition to the establishment of full library services on the six target reservations, books, magazines and furniture were placed at six other reservations.
ILSP Project staff felt that the most important accomplishment in mitigating the effect of cultural differences and increasing access to libraries by Indian people was the hiring and training of four local American Indians as library managers. ILSP provided nine full-day workshops for tribal library staff and other interested reservation residents. The workshops covered basic library functions including cataloging, library services, reference interviews, materials selection, storytelling, literacy tutoring, archives management, Indian law research, and grant wanting. This instruction was reinforced with one-on-one training as part of bi-weekly visits by SDCL Outreach workers. Over 25 reservation residents attended at least one workshop and 10 became literacy tutors. Five research tours were planned and funded by the project. Tribal library managers visited Southern California institutions with extensive Indian collections, such as the San Diego Museum of Man and the Southwest and Malki Museums in Los Angeles and the Morongo Reservation, respectively. The project director, in the final summary report, commented on the importance of these tours:
The physical results of the research tours were also important to the success of ILSP. The archival materials and historical photographs attracted adults to the libraries. The archival records were used to research hotly debated current issues before the tribal council. The photographs became the focus of many conversations, literacy lessons, and cross-generational teaching. These materials changed the image of a library to a cultural resource center. More than the Indian books, these special materials made the library into a local community organization, rather than an extension of a non-Indian institution.
Project staff also conducted a public relations campaign to increase awareness of library services and materials on the reservation, as well as in the urban Indian community. ILSP staffed an information booth at almost every Indian community event during its second year.
ILSP increased Indian access to the County Library's collections and services. One of the regional reference centers in the SDCL system reported that in one year they received over 50 reference questions, circulated over 300 books, and mailed 450 pages of photocopied material for ILSP-related patrons. ILSP borrowed an average of five films or videos per week and two exhibits per month. Access to library programs was improved through ILSP as well. The summer reading program, which drew 100 children during the project's first year, doubled Indian participation during the second year. A high point in the development of libraries as tribally self-determined institutions came during the second year when Indian library managers initiated and implemented their own culturally-appropriate puppet shows, storytelling sessions, and summer reading motivation and incentive programs.
Project staff, anticipating the end of LSCA funds after year two, worked with SDCL administrators in drafting a "Plan of Cooperation" between the SDCL and the Indian libraries. The plan clarified the fact that the Indian libraries would not be considered "branch libraries," in keeping with the concept of tribal sovereignty. Yet the SDCL was to continue a cooperative relationship with the Indian libraries since reservation residents were also county residents. The plan of cooperation provided the following:
1. an institutional borrower's card for each Indian library which allowed access to the county's collection;
2. a "sister" library connection which allowed the Indian library to channel reference questions and interlibrary loan requests through the nearest SDCL branch library;
3. the ILSP assistant position was to become a permanent County Library position responsible for maintaining a direct link between the reservation libraries and SDCL; and
4. delivery services, invitations to attend workshops, ability to borrow various materials including exhibits and puppet shows, summer reading program supplies, and consideration in all future grant proposals was accorded to all Indian reservation libraries.
In retrospect, it is not surprising that the major portions of the plan of cooperation were congruent with both the philosophy and practice of Indian library development as articulated by the National Indian Education Association Library Project of 1971, by Forbes and others at the 1978 White House Pre-Conference, by WHCLIS, NIOLB, Title IV of the LSCA, and by TRAILS. Throughout the development of the San Diego Indian libraries, these policies, with self-determined input from tribal participants and collaborative assistance from existing public library systems, formed the guidance and guideposts for the potential establishment of a county-wide Indian library system on all 18 reservations. Further, the San Diego cooperative project appeared to address Indian library development conforming to the 10 points articulated in the 1992 NCLIS report on "Improving Library and Information Services for Native American Peoples:
1. Develop consistent funding sources required to support improved Native American library and information services;
2. Strengthen library and information services training and technical assistance to Native American communities;
3. Develop programs to increase tribal library material holdings and to develop relevant collections in all formats;
4. Improve access and strengthen cooperative activities;
5. Develop state and local partnerships;
6. Establish general federal policy and responsibilities;
7. Identify model programs for Native American libraries and information services;
8. Develop museum and archival services for preserving Native American cultures;
9. Encourage adult and family literacy programs, basic job skills training, and strengthen tribal community colleges and libraries; and
10. Encourage application of newer information network technologies.
With the convergence of thought inherent in the collaboration of the county and the tribes, it might be assumed that mutual and continued success was assured, especially given the project director's summation of the projects' accomplishments in the final summary report: "The success comes not directly from ILSP actions, however, but from ILSP's work with the People. There is no trick to giving and receiving material aid. It is changes in attitudes, knowledge and connections which make a difference in library service and in people's lives."
The clue to the less-than-optimal implementation of the Indian library system lies in the previous quote: there is, in point of fact, a trick to giving and receiving material aid. In this case, both county library and tribal library systems had vested the entire operation of their collaborative project in a system of grant dependency. Rather than expending shared effort on the fundamental need for consistent funding given as the first priority in the 1992 NCLIS report, the collaboration fell prey to economic downsizing and fiscal retrenchment brought on by the national recessionary trend. Rather than focusing on the economic viability of the collaboration, the parties focused almost entirely on the process of collaboration. This process was certainly well intentioned and as noted, contributed to rapid and measurable positive change.
The seven reservation libraries still exist; however, one Indian library manager expressed that it was a miracle that they did. The Plan of Cooperation now exists largely as a document of intent rather than one of implementation. The erosion of key components of the plan has resulted in the loss of a number of things upon which the Indian community came to depend. The project's assistant was one of 50 people in SDCL to receive a layoff notice. Outreach workers are now stationed in the branches of the SDCL system and are not sanctioned to visit the reservation libraries due to extreme staffing shortages. From the tribal librarians' standpoint, the lack of ongoing outreach, training, and technical assistance, so prevalent in the early developmental years, was a major factor in the decline of effectiveness of the tribal library system.
The lessons learned from this experience affect both parties. Non-Indian institutions could certainly learn more about the diverse populations they serve, including how best to serve individualized need, how to develop and maintain trust and cooperation, and how not to commit to the long-term unless one can provide the resource base in the long-term. The public library in this case was caught in the dilemma of being committed to serve all county residents without having the financial ability to serve all county residents: the last served became the first severed.
Tribal institutions likewise have lessons to be learned. The first of these reinforces the sometimes neglected proposition that grant dependency is incongruent with sovereignty and self-determination. While this is often clear in governmental operations, economic, employment, and education development, it is often overlooked when dealing with peripheral tribal operations such as libraries and other services seen as "nice to have" but not essential. Tribal governments did not foresee that the libraries would become as important in the fabric of tribal life as they did for some reservations; therefore, they were unprepared to incorporate library continuation into ongoing tribal operations plans. The second lesson is that access to information is a tribal imperative which both builds from and feeds sovereignty. The information age is a reality with which tribes must deal, just as certainly as they must deal with the reality of financial constraint. Efficient access to information is mandated in all aspects of tribal life, from education to economic development to tribal capacity building, if tribal character is to persevere. It is virtually incumbent on sovereign tribes and nations to infuse information access and information literacy into the fundamental survival processes of self-governance. In great measure, tribally-controlled libraries hold an important key to the future ability of tribal governance to implement sovereignty and self-determination.
1 The authors would like to acknowledge the archival contributions, anecdotal data, and personal insights provided by past and present county and Indian library personnel, consultants, tribal members, and others associated with the development of the tribal libraries which are the subject of this article. In particular, we thank Karen Brown, Robert Brown (Diegueno), Vera Brown (Kumeyaay), Marsha C. de Baca, Jane Dumas Kumeyaay), Patricia Friend (Pueblo), Julie Labreak (Kumeyaay), Mark Macarro (Luiseno), Laura Mitchell, Victor Peralta (Churnash), Florence Ponchetti (Diegueno), Henry Rodriguez (Luiseno), Mary Ellen Rubalcaval Isabel Sanchez, and Mary Uybungco.
2 Bureau of Indian Affairs, Indian Service Population and Labor Force Estimates (U.S. Department of Interior, 1991). Tribal libraries and the tribally-enrolled reservation populations they serve are indicated in parentheses. Barona (450), Campo (223), Pauma (132), Rincon (631), Santa Ysabel (953), Sycuan (120), and Viejas (213). The actual reservation population served may be considerably higher, as in the case of the Rincon reservation where authorities indicate 1,065 persons living on tribal lands. This latter figure does not appear in either census or labor force data. A conservative estimate is that tribal libraries serve at least 25% more reservation residents than labor force data indicate, or approximately 3,403 persons. In their remote locations, tribal libraries are resources for a non-reservation population as well. Usage data reported by tribal libraries personal communication with R. Brown, P. Friend, J. Labreak and M. Macarro, July 1993) indicate that as many as 1,000 additional off-reservation persons may be served annually by these facilities.
3 Mary Hobson, Principal Librarian, San Diego County Library, personal communication. The San Diego County Library is currently facing a projected 1993-1994 fiscal year revenue reduction of $2.6 million. Given this level of fiscal retrenchment, some smaller county library facilities may close while those still in operation will suffer severe reductions in staffing and services.
4 The Library Services for Indian Tribes and Hawaiian Natives Program, Title IV of the Library Services and Construction Act, was enacted in 1984 and authorized the Secretary of Education to award Basic and Special Projects Grants to federally recognized Indian tribes and to organizations primarily serving Hawaiian natives.
5 U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, Pathways to Excellence: A Report on Improving Library and Information Services for Native American Peoples. Summary Report. NCLIS, December 1992. p. 1.
6 Edith Buckland Webb. Indian Life at the Old Missions. (University of Nebraska, 1982) 93, 302-303, Asistencias are outlying chapels and smaller missions associated with the 21 California missions established by Father Junipero Serra. They were generally established at Indian village sites at some distance from the main mission and acted as points for religious education and conversation, gathering points for native laborers, and as outposts for military control. The asistencias in San Diego County under discussion were associated with the Mission San Luis Rey in Present-day Oceanside and Mission San Diego de Alcala in San Diego proper.
7 Mr. Steve Ponchetti, personal communication, May 1963, August 1985 and Mrs. Jane Durnas, April-May 1993. Author's (Whitehorse) field notes.
8 Congress of the United States. House Concurrent Resolution 108.1953. Termination ended the government to government relationships between tribe and the federal government in a number of states, including California. The absence of other than caretaker governance under this policy resulted in a number of incomplete archival histories and loss of much tribal information which had to be reconstructed after the end of the termination policy.
9 Henry Rodriguez, personal communication April 1980, June 1988, June 1993 and author's (Whitehorse) field notes. It is standard practice for the Bureau of Indian Affairs to require tribal resolutions and documentation for tribal governmental and administrative actions from all tribes under its authority. Grant applications, reports, results of tribal elections, economic development information, and fiscal information are routinely reported to the Riverside, CA Sub-Agency of the Bureau of Indian Affairs by all the San Diego County reservation governments.
10 Jack D. Forbes. "The Potential Role of Libraries and Information Services in Supporting Native American Cultures and the Quality of Life of Native People." Paper presented to the White House Pre-Conference on Indian Library and Information Services On or Near Reservations, Denver, October 1922, 1978.
11 Charles T. Townley, "American Indian Library Service," in Advances in Librarianship, ed. Michael H. Harris. New York: Academic Press, 1978, pp.135-180. Frankie Pelzman, "Native American Libraries, Ten Years Later," Wilson Library Bulletin: 58-61 (April 1989). Frankie Pelzman, "National Support For Native American Libraries: The NCLIS Commitment," Wilson Library Bulletin: 29-32 (December 1992). Lotsee Patterson, "Native American Library Services: Reclaiming the Past, Designing the Future," Wilson Library Bulletin: 28, 119 (December 1992).
12 Charles T. Townley, "American Indian Library Service," in Advances in Librarianship, ed. Michael H. Harris. New York: Academic Press, 1978. p. 143.
13 William D. Cunningham, "The Changing Environment and Changing Institution: Indian project of the Northeast Kansas Library System," Library Trends 20/2: 376-381 (October 1971). June Smeck Smith, "Library Service to American Indians," Library Trends 2012: 223-238 (October 1971).
14 L. Antell, "Identification of Information Needs of the American Indian Community That Can Be Met by Library Services: Phase III, Annual Report.'" National Indian Education Association, 1974.
16 Charles T. Townley, American Indian Library Service," in Advances in Librarianship, ed. Michael H. Harris. New York: Academic Press, 1978. p. 152-159.
17 Henry Rodriguez, former Executive Director of the Southern California Reservation Planning Organization (SCRAP). Personal communication, June 1993.
18 U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, "Pathways to Excellence: A Report on Improving Library and Information Services for Native American Peoples." Summary report. December 1992. p. 7.
19 Beth Fine and Dianne Villines, "Library Programs: Library Services for Indian Tribes & Hawaiian Natives Program." Review of Program Activities, LSCA, 1989.
20 Lotsee Patterson, Tribal Library Procedures Manual TRAILS (Training and Assistance for Indian Library Services), U.S. Department of Education, 1986.
21 Laura Mitchell, Indian Library Services Project Application for Library Services and Construction Act funding for FY 1987-1988. Workshop featured Martin Gomez, State Library consultant and Lotsee Smith and Rick Heyser from the TRAILS Project. California State Librarian, Gary Strong.
22 Vera Brown, Viejas Reservation representative to Concerned Community and Mobilization Project (CCAMP), Southern Indian Health Council, Inc. Personal communication, April 1993.
23 Laura Mitchell, Indian Library Services Project Application for Library Services and Construction Act funding for FY 1987-1988. p. 2.
24 Ibid, p. 8.
25 Robert Brown, personal communication, July 1993. Karen E. Brown, Indian Library Services Project Final Summary Report, ILSP, 1988. p. 3.
26 Catherine E. Lucas, Indian Library Services Project II Application for Library Services and Construction Act funding for FY 1988-89. ILSP, 1988. p. 2.
27 Karen E. Brown, Indian Library Services Project Final Summary Report, 1988. ILSP, 1989. p. 2.
28 Ibid, p. 8.
29 Patricia Friend, Pauma Reservation Library Manager, Personal communication, December 1988.
30 Karen E. Brown, Indian Library Services Project Final Summary Report, 1988. Plan of Cooperation addendum.
31 U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, "Pathways to Excellence: A Report on Improving Library and Information Services for Native American Peoples." Summary report. December 1992. p. 9-20.
32 Karen E. Brown, Indian Library Services Project Final Summary Report, 1988. p. 7.
33 Personal communication with Mark Macarro, Rincon Reservation Library Manager; July 1993.
34 Personal communications with tribal library managers Robert Brown (Viejas) Julie Labreak (Sycuan), and Mark Macarro (Rincon), July 1993.
This paper was presented orally at the 96th Annual Conference of the California Library Association on November 12, 1994.
Bonnie Biggs, M.L.S., is Coordinator for Public Services and Assistant to the Dean, Library Services, at California State University San Marcos. Her primary research interests are in the fields of Indian library development and performing arts. David Whitehorse, Ed.D., (Lakota) is Assistant Professor in the College of Education, California State University San Marcos. He specializes in multicultural and social sciences education and relates those fields to his research in contemporary American Indian issues. As a former Tribal Administrator for the Pauma Band of Mission Indians, he was involved in the early development of the library on that reservation.…