Bibliometrics is a research method used in library and information science. It is a quantitative study of various aspects of literature on a topic and is used to identify the pattern of publication, authorship, and secondary journal coverage to gain insight into the dynamics of growth of knowledge in the areas under consideration. This can lead to better organization of information resources, which is essential for effective and efficient use. Bibliometrics has attained sophistication and complexity with a national, international, and interdisciplinary character.
The term "bibliometrics" was coined by Pritchard in 1969. A pioneering example of a bibliometric study was statistical analysis of the literature of comparative anatomy from 1543 to 1860, done by counting book and journal titles, and grouping them by countries of origin and periods. In 1923, a study was conducted by Hulme, entitled "Statistical Analysis of the History of Science". His analysis was based on the entries in the English International Catalogue of Scientific Literature. A third study was the work of Gross and Gross reported in 1927. They counted and analyzed the citations in articles from the Journal of the American Chemical Society, and produced a list of journals deemed important to chemical education. Another prominent work was Bradford's 1934 article on the distribution of literature in lubrication research. It is an important part of the theoretical foundation of bibliometrics, "Bradford's Law of Scattering."
In 1948, the great library scientist, S.R. Ranganathan, coined the term "librametry", which historically appeared first and was intended to streamline the services of librarianship. Bibliometrics is analogous to Ranganathan's librametrics, the Russian concept scientometrics, boometrics, and subdisciplines like econometrics, psychometrics, sociometrics, biometrics, …