The God Argument: the Case Against Religion and for Humanism
A C Grayling
Bloomsbury, 288pp, [pounds sterling]16.99
Years ago, I asked Richard Dawkins what his next book was about.
"God," he replied.
"But," I responded in a state of shock, "why?"
Dawkins's 2006 book, The God Delusion, sold around the world, so, perhaps, that answered my question. More seriously, in the wake of 9/11 and in the midst of the antiscientific demands of American fundamentalists, it could be argued that an anti-religious book was a necessary corrective. There were many such books, the most influential being by the group known as the "four horsemen" of the anti-religious apocalypse--Dawkins, Sam Harris, Christopher Hitchens and Daniel Dennett.
With this book, the philosopher A C Grayling announces himself as the fifth horseman. He is very conscious of being a member of this club. In the acknowledgements, he writes of other anti-religious writers as "comrades in the task" and "colleagues and fellows in the cause". The cause seems to be to extend a humanist awakening to the people of the world and thereby free them from religion, which is, Grayling admits, "a pervasive fact of history" but also "a hangover from the infancy of modern humanity".
The book is not intended as a reprise of the arguments of the other horseman comrades; rather, it aims to extend the batdefront. The book is in two halves--the first is Grayling's case against religion; the second outlines the humanist alternative, which is "an ethics free from religious or superstitious aspects, an outlook that has its roots in rich philosophical traditions".
First, to take the book on its own terms, this is a lucid, informative and admirably accessible account of the atheist-secular-humanist position. Grayling writes with pace and purpose and provides powerful--though non-lethal--ammunition for anybody wishing to shoot down intelligent theists such as Alvin Plantinga or to dispatch even the most sophisticated theological arguments, such as the ontological proof of the existence of God.
That said, the first half, which is in essence analytical, is much better than the second half, which is rather discursive and feels almost tract-like in its evocation of shiny, happy people having fun in a humanist paradise. Nevertheless, this is rhetorically justifiable to the extent that it is an attempt to answer the question necessarily posed by any attempt to eliminate religion--what would be put in its place? Even the most rabid followers of the horsemen cannot seriously deny that religion does serve some useful purposes: providing a sense of community, consoling the bereaved and the suffering, telling a story to make sense of the world, and so on. Grayling tells a humanist story in the belief that it is perfectly capable of answering all these needs.
There are flaws in all this. For example, Grayling breezily dismisses Stalinism and Maoism as being "counter-Enlightenment" forces. Communism, however, was an Enlightenment project based on a belief in reason to reorder human affairs. You may say Stalin and Mao were communist aberrations but then the Catholic Church could legitimately claim forgiveness for the Spanish Inquisition and the slaughter of the Cathars on the same grounds.
There is also an irritating and highly self-serving argument that appears in various forms throughout the book. This seems to be an attempt to delegitimise all religious discourse. "Atheism," Grayling writes, "is to theism as not stamp-collecting is to stamp-collecting." In other words, not to be a stamp collector "denotes only the open-ended and negative state of not collecting stamps". Equally, not being a theist is not a positive condition; it merely says this person "does not even begin to enter the domain of discourse in which these beliefs have their life and content". …