China and Russia, as well as other nations, continue to maintain illegal biological-weapons programs banned by the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention, says an annual report to Congress released yesterday by the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency.
The report on arms-treaty compliance states that Russia, in particular, has failed to resolve questions about its illegal biological-weapons facilities despite a pledge by Russian President Boris Yeltsin to halt the germ-weapons program.
The administration is continuing "to work with the Russian leadership to ensure complete termination of the illegal program," the document says.
The report adds that some Russian biological-research facilities engaged in legitimate research "may be maintaining the capability to produce biological warfare agents." Data provided by Moscow in 1992 on the germ-weapons program was "incomplete and misleading" and has not been corrected, it reports.
Russia also has not fully complied with the 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, the 1990 Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty and the 1989 Wyoming Agreement on chemical weapons, the report says.
Regarding China, the study says Beijing "may have continued to assist Pakistan's unsafeguarded nuclear program and may have continued contacts with elements associated with Pakistan's nuclear weapons related program."
Such contacts would violate the 1968 nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which China signed in 1992. The report did not include a "finding" on whether these activities are a violation, as it did for other nations' activities with respect to the nuclear pact.
Earlier this year, the Clinton administration determined that China sold nuclear-weapons technology to Pakistan through sales of ring magnets but declined to impose sanctions as required under U. …