Career Tech in Content, 1900-1999

Article excerpt

The career and technical educational field evolved throughout the century just as the world around it did, experiencing some highs and some lows. Here's a look at 100 years of career tech in the context of history.

1902

Willis H. Carrier designs a practical system for indoor air conditioning

1903

The Wright Brothers make their first flight in Kitty Hawk, N.C.

1905

Advocates of "practical education" argue for boarder public school curriculum that prepares graduates for jobs.

1906

The National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education is founded.

Maria Montessori opens her first day care center in Rome. Her Montessori method of early childhood education, part of the progressive education movement, spreads throughout the world.

1908

Henry Ford develops the first Model T automobile, which sells for $850.

1912

Congress sets an eight-hour work day. Most Americans continue to work 10- to 12-hour days.

1914

Sen. Hoke Smith chairs the commission on national aid for vocational education. World War I breaks out in Europe.

1917

The Smith-Hughes Vocational Education Act becomes law. It provides $1.7 million for career and technical education in 1917-18 and creates a federal board.

1918

The United States enters World War I, sending 1 million troops abroad. The war ends in November; Congress passes legislation funding vocational education for veterans.

1920

The 19th Amendment grants suffrage to American women.

1925

John T. Scopes is found guilty of having taught evolution at a Dayton, Tenn., high school. He is fined $100.

1926

The American Vocational Association is founded.

Vocational education enrollment exceeds 850,000; states get $7.2 million for programs.

1929

Congress increases annual appropriations for home economics and agriculture education.

On Wall Street, the stock market crashes on Oct. 29, ushering in the Great Depression.

1933

Franklin D. Roosevelt, elected to the first of four presidential terms, appoints Frances Perkins U.S. secretary of labor. She is the first female cabinet member.

1934

The Dust Bowl hits U.S. western states, blowing 300 million tons of topsoil into the Atlantic Ocean and devastating farm land in Kansas, Texas, Colorado and Oklahoma.

1935

The Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO), later the Congress of industrial Organizations, is formed to expand industrial unionism.

1936

George-Deen Act authorizes an annual $12 million allotment for agriculture, home economics and trade and industrial education. Marketing occupations were recognized for the first time, receiving an authorization of $1.2 million.

1938

Congress passes the Fair Labor Standards Act, providing a minimum wage for the first time.

1941

The U.S. enters World War II after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. The war spurs Congress to pass Vocational Education for National Defense Acts to help prepare war industry workers, many of whom are women.

1944

President Roosevelt signs the G.I. Bill of Rights, providing veterans' benefits,

1946

The George-Barden Act replaces the George-Deen Act and authorizes $28.5 million annually for the increased development of vocational education.

1954

In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kan., the Supreme Court rules unanimously that racial segregation violates the 14th Amendment.

1955

Rosa Parks refuses to give her bus seat to a white man in Montgomery, Ala., prompting a bus boycott and marking the unofficial beginning of the American civil rights movement.

Merger of America's two largest labor unions effected Dec. …