Britons rule the world on the battlefield. Nineteen of our commanders win places in the top 100 list of the globe's military leaders - more than any other country.
Cromwell, Wellington, Nelson and Montgomery are among the 19, in a book by an American battle veteran and historian that sparked a furious war of words yesterday.
The author, Lieut-Col Michael Lanning, puts his own nation's first president George Washington at No.1. Napoleon is second and Alexander the Great, third. Hitler is listed at 14 and Saddam Hussein at 81 in rankings which include those who dominated their time for good or evil.
Sir Winston Churchill is left out on the basis that he was a political rather than military leader.
Field Marshal Montgomery, his fellow Second World War hero, only makes No.63.
But Colonel Bob Stewart, who commanded British forces in Bosnia, yesterday led criticism of the list.
He said: "Washington at number one? He must be joking. The book is for the American market, so it has to have him top."
Stewart said Napoleon should have displaced Washington, adding: "Forget Waterloo, we only won because we were saved by the Prussians. Napoleon was a stunningly successful leader."
The rankings cover conflicts from the fifth century BC to the Gulf War in 1991.
And despite the US's brief 200 years as a fighting nation, 16 other Americans apart from War of Independence commander Washington make the top 100.
That puts America second to Britain, followed by France 12, Germany, nine, and Russia, four.
China also has four, including Chairman Mao. Spain, Sweden and Turkey have three each
Writer Lanning, a highly decorated Vietnam veteran, agreed his book was biased towards Americans, but said of Washington: "He kept the American army together.
"Without him, there wouldn't be a United States today."
Gulf war commander General "Stormin" Norman Schwarzkopf is No.49.
Cromwell, who beat the Royalists in the Civil War of the 17th century, is highest ranking Brit at 19.
The Duke of Wellington, Napoleon's conqueror at Waterloo, is 22. The Duke of Marlborough is 31 and Admiral Nelson 35.
Field Marshal Alan Brooke - later Viscount Alanbrooke - is listed 44 in recognition of his First World War exploits and his role in the Second as commander of all British troops. Fellow Field Marshal William Slim, commander of the forgotten 14th Army in Burma who beat the Japanese, is surprisingly excluded from Lanning's book, called The 100 Most Influential Military Leaders.
Among British experts taking issue with the choices yesterday was General Jeremy Thompson, who led 3 Para in the Falklands.
He said: "No.1 should be Alexander the Great. He was only 26 when he started and left a huge amount of cultural Greek imprints on large areas of the world.
"He is talked about to this day all over the world, about 2,500 years after it all happened."
Thompson added: "He is right not to include Churchill, but if he is going to include Hitler, then he should include Stalin.
"And Montgomery should be a lot higher than 63."
Military historian General Sir Anthony Farrar-Hockley named General MacArthur, head of American forces in Korea, as "probably the greatest" US leader of modern times. He is listed at 20.
Mark Seaman, historian at London's Imperial War Museum, said: "If you asked 10 military historians to come up with their top 100, you would find reasonable similarity, but never the same order."
1 George Washington, 1732-1799.
2 Napoleon, 1769-1821.
3 Alexander the Great, 356-323 BC.
4 Genghis Khan, 1167-1227. Mongol leader.
5 Julius Caesar, 100-44 BC.
6 Gustavus Adolphus, 1594-1632. Swedish king.
7 Francisco Pizarro, 1475-1541. Beat Incas.
8 Charlemagne, 742-814. Holy Roman Emperor.
9 Hernando Cortes, 1485-1547. Beat Aztecs.
10 Cyrus the Great, 590-529 BC. Persian king.
11 Frederick the Great, Prussia, 1712-1786.
12 Simon Bolivar, 1783-1830. South American liberator.
13 William the Conqueror, 1027-1087.
14 Adolf Hitler, 1889-1945.
15 Attila the Hun, 406-453.
16 George Marshall, 1880-1859. US chief of staff, Second World War.
17 Peter the Great, 1672-1725. Russian Tsar.
18 Dwight Eisenhower, 1890-1969.
19 Oliver Cromwell 1599-1658.
20 Douglas MacArthur, 1880-1964. US chief.
21 Karl von Clausewitz of Prussia, 1780-1831.
22 Duke of Wellington, 1769-1852.
23 Sun Tzu, 400-330 BC. Chinese strategist.
24 Hermann-Maurice Comte de Saxe, 1696-1750. French marshal.
25 Tamerlane, 1336-1405. Tartar conqueror.
26 Antoine Jomini, 1779-1869. French general
27 Eugene of Savoy, 1663-1736. Austrian marshal and ally of Marlborough.
28 Fernandez Gonzalo de Cordoba, 1453-1515. Spanish general.
29 Sebastian de Vauban, 1633-1707. French marshal, master of siege warfare.
30 Hannibal, 247-183 BC.
31 The Duke of Marlborough, 1650-1722.
32 Winfield Scott, 1786-1866. US general.
33 Ulysses Simpson Grant, 1822-1885. American Civil War Union general.
34 Sciplo Africanus, 237-183 BC. Roman general.
35 Horatio Nelson, 1758-1805.
36 John Fuller, 1878-1966. British general and military analyst.
37 Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne de Turenne 1611-1675. French marshal.
38 Alfred Mahon, 1840-1914. US admiral.
39 Helmuth von Moltke, 1800-1891. Prussian marshal.
40 Vo Nguyen Glap, 1912. North Vietnamese general.
41 John Pershing, 1860-1948. US First World War commander.
42 Maurice of Nassau, 1567-1625. Dutch general and military theorist.
43 Joan of Arc, 1412-1431.
44 Alan Brooke, 1883-1963. British Second World War commander.
45 Jean de Gribeauval, 1715-1789. French general who transformed artillery.
46 Omar Bradley, 1893-1981. US commander in Europe in the Second World War.
47 Ralph Abercromby, 1734-1801. Brit general.
48 Mao Tse-tung, 1893-1976.
49 Norman Schwarzkopf, 1934-
50 Aleksandr Suvorov, 1729-1800. Russian marshal.
51 Louis Barthier, 1753-1815. French war minister under Napoleon.
52 Jose de San Martin, 1778-1850. South American revolutionary.
53 Giuseppe Garibaldi, 1807-1882. Italian revolutionary leader.
54 Ivan Konev, 1897-1973. Soviet marshal.
55 Suleiman l, 1494-1556. Turk sultan.
56 Colin Campbell, 1792-1863. Brit marshal.
57 Sam Houston, 1793-1863. Texan general.
58 Richard I (The Lionheart), 1157-1199.
59 Shaka, 1787-1828, Zulu king.
60 Robert E. Lee, 1807-1870. American Civil War Confederate general.
61 Chester Nimitz, 1885-1966. American admiral who defeated Japanese Navy.
62 Gebhard von Blucher, 1742-1819. Prussian marshal, ally of Wellington.
63 Bernard Montgomery (Monty), 1887-1976.
64 Carl von Mannerheim, 1867-1951. Finnish marshal.
65 H H "Hap" Arnold 1886-1950. US air chief.
66 Ataturk, 1881-1938. Turk general.
67 John Fisher, 1841-1920. Brit admiral.
68 Heihachiro Togo, 1848-1934. Japanese admiral.
69 Moshe Dayan of Israel, 1915-1981.
70 Georgi Zhukov, 1896-1974. Soviet marshal.
71 Ferdinand Foch, 1851-1929. French marshal.
72 Edward 1, 1239-1307.
73 Selim, 1470-1520. Turkish sultan.
74 Giullo Douhet, 1869-1930. Italy general.
75 Heinz Guderlan, 1888-1954. German tank general.
76 Lin Plao, 1907-1971, Chinese marshal.
77 Isoroku Yamamoto, 1884-1943. Japan Navy.
78 Harold Alexander, 1891-1969. Brit Marshal.
79 Erwin Rommel, 1891-1944. German army.
80 Lennart Torstensson, 1603-1651. Swedish marshal.
81 Saddam Hussein, 1937-.
82 Cuba's Fidel Castro, 1927-.
83 Horatio Kitchener, 1850-1916. British marshal.
84 Tito, 1892-1980. Yugoslav marshal.
85 Karl Doenitz, 1891-1980. German admiral.
86 Kim Il Sung, of North Korea,1912-1994.
87 David Farragut, 1801-1870. US admiral.
88 Garnet Wolseley, 1833-1913. British field marshal who modernised army.
89 Chiang Kai-shek, of China,1887-1975. Chinese nationalist leader.
90 Frederick Roberts, 1832-1914. Field marshal who expanded the British Empire.
91 Saladin, 1138-1193. Muslim sultan.
92 George Dewey, 1837-1917. US admiral.
93 Louis II de Bourbon, of France, 1621-1686.
94 Kurt Student, 1890-1978. German general.
95 George Patton, 1885-1945. US general.
96Michel Ney, 1769-1815. French marshal.
97 Charles XII, 1682-1718. Swedish king.
98 Thomas Cochrane 1775-1860. British admiral.
99 Johann von Tilly, 1559-1632. Flemish mercenary.
100 Edmund Allenby, 1861-1936. British commander in First World War.…