By Jafri, Sibte Ahmed; Pervez, Khalid
Economic Review , Vol. 21, No. 4
Pakistan has been spending a colossal amount of its resources on the development of energy sector. The supply - demand situation however persists to be alarming and it would require much more concerted efforts to at least ease the situation.
Amidst this scenario, energy conservation is the need of the day. It is essential that the people in general and those directly concerned with energy and power are educated to become energy - conscious and all possible measures of energy conservation are identified and viable schemes and measures implemented without delay.
This paper identifies electrical service connection as a source of energy losses. The findings are based on actual measurements performed on LT at a number of buildings in Karachi.
It has been demonstrated in the paper that the use of improper service connection is resulting in the loss of energy to the tune of over 300 million KWH per annum for residential and commercial consumers all over the country.
The loss could be saved by employing a service connection consisting of cable of correct size and a circuit breaker in place of conventional rewireable fuse.
An improved service connection will not only save energy losses, it will better protect the network and will make the electrical installation much more safe.
Pakistan with its limited exploited resources, has been spending around 10% of its budget on importing crude oil and 28% in the power sector. Out of the total 350 billion Rupees Seventh Five Year Plan, the allocation for the sector of energy is of the order of 36%. This is a colossal expenditure. But inspite of this burden on the exchequer, half the village of Pakistan are yet deprived of electricity and those who have it are forced to be without electricity for long durations on account of load shedding.
With the present installed capacity of around 6,700 MW, the per capita available power is just 65 Watts which is only about 21% of the average 301 Watts available to the Third World countries. (Compare it with 2800 Watts per capita of USA). Based on the energy consumption forecasts of International Energy Agency it is estimated that Pakistan would require an installed capacity of about 40,000 MW at the turn of century. Knowing the present status, this does not seem to be achievable.
It is said that a Watt saved is a Watt generated. The authors would add that it is much cheaper to save rather than generate a Watt. Therefore it is highly logical and need of the day to give equal importance to energy conservation.
Energy Conservation is a very broad subject. It encompasses in it ways and means of optimizing the use of energy. Whether it is a building, a machine or a piece of equipment, its basic design and construction should have in-built energy conservation. The buildings should be used in an energy-efficient style, and should have suitable devices to achieve this.
The machines and equipment, apart from being energy efficient in their basic design, should be operated only when needed. To ensure this appropriate devices should be employed for monitoring of idle or undesired operation of machines.
The energy conservation is achieved only through minimization of losses (lighting an empty room and idle operation of a motor also being losses). It is therefore essential that buildings, machines, etc. are all energy efficient in terms of their basic design and they are used in a manner to ensure minimum use of energy. …