War Crimes - and Blunders ; Europe at War 1939-1945 by Norman Davies MACMILLAN [Pound]25 (544Pp)

Article excerpt

Although the Second World War ended over 60 years ago, it still reverberates in culture and politics. The history shelves of bookshops sag under the weight of tomes chronicling all aspects of the 1939 to 1945 global conflict. Yet, as Norman Davies points out, there is still no single volume that gives a satisfactory overview of the war, encompassing every theatre, and giving due weight to each. No historian has managed to write a global history that does as much justice to the home front as to the combatants. More seriously, historians writing in different national contexts continue to churn out patriotic and partial accounts.

Despite the passage of time and the decline of divisive ideologies, the history of the war still exists in fragments. This lack of consensus was exposed by the discordant celebrations in the US, Europe and Russia to mark the 60th anniversary of its end. In the fine opening passage with which he begins this onslaught on the myths and misconceptions of the war, Davies shows how politicians could barely agree when the war began, let alone what it had been about.

His chief concern is with the double standards that inform popular history and academic studies. As a leading historian of Poland, Davies sees the war through the eyes of a country occupied and violated by two totalitarian juggernauts, and on both occasions abandoned by the democracies. The Poles have little patience for the "anti-fascist" version of history, perpetuated by the Left, in which the democracies led by Churchill and Roosevelt made common cause with Stalin to defeat evil. To Davies, the war was actually "a clash of two evils".

Stalin outdid Hitler in mass murder. His concentration camps were bigger. During the conflict British and Americans remember as "the good war", he deported millions of innocent people to Siberia. Davies smashes the myth that between 1941 and 1945 the life of Soviet citizens improved. Wartime Russia resembled a vast prison camp harnessed to a formidable war machine. The Red Army raped and pillaged its way across Europe, imposing a new terror on the countries it "liberated".

So far, so good. Unfortunately, Davies feels that if he is to judge the Soviets by the principles they helped set down at the Nuremberg Tribunal, he must do the same to the other Allies. He accuses the British and Americans of miscellaneous "war crimes", such as the bombing of Dresden, which are contentious at best. His equally laudable intention to restore balance and proportion to the geo-strategic perception of the war, showing that its centre of gravity was in Eastern Europe, leads him to belittle every other theatre.

He dismisses the North African campaigns and the Mediterranean theatre, despite the superb work of Douglas Porch and others that demonstrates it was the hinge of Allied success. Davies claims the Axis "cut their losses" in Tunisia when, in fact, Hitler kept sending troops and material there until the very end. He writes that "a modest Allied amphibious force crossed from North Africa to Sicily", when it landed more men than Operation Overlord did in Normandy a year later.

Davies chides Montgomery for his "snail's pace progress" after the break-out from Normandy, whereas the Allied forces advanced so far, so fast that they outran their supply lines. …