A History That Japan Can't Forget ; Textbooks Become a Foreign Relations Flap as Asians Protest a New Take on WW II

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The polite discomfort between Japan and South Korea over how to view Japan's World War II behavior is turning to anger over an unlikely battleground - Japan's new middle-school history texts.

China has also registered its displeasure with Tokyo after the Japanese Education Ministry last week approved a group of eight books, five of which make no reference to Japan's 1937 massacre in Nanjing nor to "comfort women," a euphemism for Asian women held as wartime sex slaves by the Japanese.

The textbooks are straining ties between Northeast Asia's two largest democratic allies. South Korea went so far as to recall its ambassador to Tokyo Monday. And public outcry in Seoul is growing. The sharp reaction is a reminder that more than a half century later, Japan's neighbors consider the way history is taught to the next generation of Japanese as a matter of utmost importance.

"The Japanese children will grow up to become international fools who don't understand their own country's history," said a pamphlet being handed out by primary school children on the streets of Seoul yesterday.

Yukio Yoshimoto says the Education Ministry's decision is a discouraging setback to the relations he's built with Korean teachers - and newfound friends - across the sea. "I'm very concerned," says Mr. Yoshimoto, member of the Japan-Korea Joint Education Research Group, a cultural and educational exchange. "I'm afraid they'll say we won't have anything to talk about anymore.... One of the new books "is totally the opposite of what we'd want it to be."

That sentiment seems to be echoed by other teachers groups here, including the Japan Teachers Union (JTU), which officially opposes the textbook that seeks to return a patriotic patina to the country's history lessons. But other educators say this is merely a chance to return a sense of balance to the view of history.

"We just want to teach the children about Japanese history with a balanced textbook," says Takamori Akinori, director of the right- leaning Japanese Society for Textbook Reform, which wrote one of the revised textbooks.

"The Japanese mass media took material that relates to China and Korea out of context in ways that are provocative and spread misunderstanding from both Korea and China," says Mr. Akinori. "We are not planning to plant ill-will toward China and Korea in our children."

But one teacher's balance is another's bias. While neo-patriots complain that Japan's lens of history is now focused on alleged human rights abuses and war crimes, others say Japan will only build a better society and stronger bridges if it faces its history without embellishment.

"There is a fact of invading Asian countries, and we need to face it," says Yoshimoto. "The others are eliminating the darker side of history.... When you do that, there's no room for discussion of different viewpoints."

The flap over how to teach children modern Japanese history is just one of many reforms irking teachers. …