In secularist France, where a Muslim schoolgirl's veil can spark fears that the Republic is in danger, there have long been suspicions that Islam and French democracy just don't mix.
But some of those concerns dissolved when representatives of the country's Muslim community agreed to take part in the election of a government-sponsored council that would work toward better integration into French society.
The need for dialogue between the state and its resident Muslims has become even more apparent since the 9/11 attacks on America by Islamic extremists. A key issue is whether France can foster a form of Islam that is compatible with its secular, democratic society.
But after 2 1/2 years of talks, France still does not have its council. And the real conflict appears to be not between French democracy and Islam - but among France's Muslims themselves.
Elections leading to the creation of the Muslim Council of France were twice postponed this summer because of bickering between conservative and more liberal imams and between more established and newer mosques. The internal power struggles are undermining both the government's desire to create an Islam a la francaise, and the hope of bringing millions of North African immigrants into France's cultural and political mainstream.
France has Europe's largest Muslim community - about 5 million. Many of them live in rundown suburbs and complain that they suffer discrimination.
Emmanuelle Mignon, the civil servant in charge of the talks, says the vast majority of France's Muslims practice a peaceful, moderate form of Islam but adds that fundamentalism remains a danger: "If we fail to integrate Islam and Muslims into French society, people will act on the basis of their identity, and radical Islam will flourish," says Ms. Mignon, who hopes to set up elections to the council by November.
The council is meant to be an important symbolic welcoming of France's second most professed religion, along the lines of bodies already existing for Catholics, Protestants, and Jews.
"Up until now the French have considered Islam to be outside the history of the Republic," says Malek Chebel, an Islamic studies specialist. He says that Islam has had trouble being accepted because it is linked to painful memories of the eight-year war between France and its former colony Algeria, and also because of France's secularist tradition.
"The real dominant religion in France is really secularism," says Malek, explaining a fear dating to the revolution that religion may influence politics, education, or social life. In many nations where Islam is dominant, the lines between state and religion are blurred.
In its efforts to create the Council, the previous Socialist government excluded a handful of radical Islamic organizations. But some leading delegates say this was not enough.
Dalil Boubakeur, rector of the Paris Grand Mosque, and one of the representatives trying to create the Council, accuses some fellow delegates of fundamentalism and recruiting for terrorist causes. …