This piquant, playful book scrambles and quickens the senses by showing the parallels between key jazz influences such as Fats Waller and Louis Armstrong, their literary contemporaries Ernest Hemingway and James Joyce, and their fine-arts compatriots Matisse, Picasso, and Alexander Calder.
By explaining how their social context led such masters to flex their artistic muscle and so broaden the scope of popular culture, Alfred Appel teaches us how to "look at" jazz and "hear" art. Linking Matisse's "Jazz" series to the sculpture of Alexander Calder and the evolving artistry of Armstrong illuminates all three.
But, if Appel can be impish, he also can be pedantic. And by restricting his discussion to artistic developments in the first half of the 20th century, he fails to address more recent, more self- consciously modern movements such as Ornette Coleman's Free Jazz and Jackson Pollock's Action Painting. Perhaps this Nabokov expert and professor emeritus of English at Northwestern University either has not assimilated such material or doesn't like it.
In any case, Appel certainly has attitude: "The millennial blather of 1999," he writes, "included the selection and publication of lists of the 100 Best in most everything, from athletes to novels. As a longtime university teacher, I was frequently asked, 'What will last?' Forced to the wall, I gradually formed a short list of the modern masters who were still definitely holding their own with the educated public."
Appel argues effectively that the racially subversive, ultimately integrative jazz of Armstrong, Ellington, and Waller (and, tangentially, Benny Goodman) is "the touchstone of accessibility," largely because when these men made music, jazz was popular. It no longer is, however; long marginalized by rock and pop, jazz is more than ever the equivalent of fine art and, as such, as likely to be heard in museums as in nightclubs.
Meanwhile, Appel puts it all together. He is an engaging critic who parses everything from Calder mobiles to Monk tunes, drawing on his own rich experience to illustrate how culture crosses and interweaves.
One of his strongest anecdotes involves a night in 1951 when Igor Stravinsky (and Appel) caught a gig by bop saxophone master Charlie Parker at Birdland: "Parker immediately called the first number for his band, and ... was off like a shot," he writes. "They were playing 'Koko,' which, because of its epochal breakneck tempo - over 300 beats per minute on the metronome - Parker never assayed before his second …