By Mark Sommer. Mark Sommer is a research associate in the Peace and Conflict Studies Program, University of California, Berkeley.
The Christian Science Monitor
ONE of the most dismaying paradoxes of the cold war's end is that despite landmark treaties to reduce both nuclear and conventional arms, weapons are maiming, killing, and displacing as many people today as during the bloodiest episodes of that titanic struggle. The causes are as numerous as the conflicts, but one factor common to all is the ready availability of weapons beneath the scale of the earth-shaking missiles and bombs regulated by those treaties.
These so-called small arms range from rifles and machine guns to land mines and heavy artillery. In Bosnia and Somalia it is AK-47s and their clones that have wrought the destruction - a slow motion mass destruction, made all the more horrific for being so personal.
The dimensions of the devastation can only be hinted at in the startling statistic that more than 40 million people have lost their lives to violent conflicts in the developing world since the end of World War II.
In their justifiable preoccupation with weapons of mass destruction and invasion, policymakers have always focused on drawing down the great powers' vastly overstocked arsenals of missiles, warheads, and tanks. Until quite recently, little thought had been given to constraining the traffic in the light arms that cause much of the suffering and damage in regional conflicts today. But Bosnia, Cambodia, and Angola have reminded the world just how destructive a war can be even when the combatants are supplied with nothing larger than bullets and artillery.
In response, several important initiatives have been launched, both nationally and internationally, to track, constrain, and in some cases, eliminate from international commerce certain classes of small arms that have consistently been shown to cause undue human suffering.
A coalition of some 50 public interest groups, ranging from arms control and international development organizations to human rights lobbies and Vietnam vets, has initiated a campaign to pressure President Clinton and Congress to deny American-made weapons to undemocratic regimes. On Nov. 19, Sen. Mark Hatfield (R) of Oregon and Rep. Cynthia McKinney (D) of Georgia introduced legislation that would prohibit arms sales to any nation that abuses human rights, denies democratic rights, attacks its neighbors or wages war against its own people, or undermines international arms control efforts.
Concurrently, international efforts are underway to pressure governments to sign on to a "code of conduct" constraining arms exports, following criteria similar to the US legislation. As a code, this pledge would have no binding effect other than whatever moral and political sanctions can be exercised against those who egregiously offend it.
A more ambitious long-term campaign has been undertaken by the World Order Models Project (WOMP), which together with the Lawyers' Committee for Nuclear Policy has spearheaded an effort to put into treaty form a comprehensive regime to regulate and reduce the international arms trade. "The arms trade is to the war system as the slave trade was to slavery," says WOMP founder Saul Mendlovitz. And the first step in constraining the abuse is to de-legitimize it.
THAT will be no small task, since at the moment governments take arms sales to be business as usual - and a more profitable business than most. …