Solzhenitsyn Returns to Russian Capital across the Country, He Stresses Need to Solve Social Decay

Article excerpt

ALEXANDER SOLZHENITSYN planned to return home to Moscow yesterday, culminating a seven-week odyssey across Russia, which he has said is deeply wracked by crime, poverty, and despair.

No brass bands are planned to welcome Russia's greatest-living writer and winner of the 1970 Nobel prize back to Moscow, but his journey in a luxury railroad car received unprecedented publicity here. "Whole layers of history are returning to native soil. I'm pleased with the return of Alexander Isayevich," said Russian President Boris Yeltsin. Essay outlines views

Mr. Solzhenitsyn has said he will not officially participate in politics and has yet to formally accept an invitation to address Russia's parliament. But in a new essay titled "The Russian Question at the End of the 20th Century," he has recorded his political views, setting the stage for his new life in Moscow.

Soon to be published by the literary journal Novy Mir, the essay was completed before Solzhenitsyn left his Vermont exile. In both content and tone, it mirrors comments the writer has made on his journey across the Far East, Siberia, Ural Mountains, and Volga River region.

The lengthy historical essay is permeated by references to Russia's spiritual, moral, and cultural uniqueness. Not surprisingly, Solzhenitsyn warns that following other countries' models will only harm his homeland. Despite the familiar nationalist tone, he criticizes imperialists who want to extend Russia "beyond its natural boundaries," especially to the eastern and southern Caucasus regions.

At the same time, however, Solzhenitsyn expresses outrage at the fate of the 25 million ethnic Russians living in former Soviet republics, and repeats earlier calls for Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, and north-western Kazakhstan to form a single state. …