Germany has a way of forcing adjustment on visiting Americans. For the past week I've searched in vain for a Macintosh network connection and have gotten up at 3 a.m. to watch the NBA Finals. And then there's the traffic, which, in Germany, seems to have only two speeds - Mach 1 or zero - depending wholly on whether the Autobahn is clogged with one of its innumerable traffic jams.
Last weekend, cars slowed to a crawl as 350,000 people converged on Bonn to stage the largest protest in the history of the Federal Republic. From all corners of the country, protesters arrived on foot, by ship, in 75 special trains, and in buses that, if parked end to end, would stretch for 108 kilometers.
What brought them to Bonn? Unlike previous large demonstrations against plans to station nuclear weapons, to join the Gulf war against Iraq, or to tighten laws on political asylum, this protest was directed not at the government's foreign policy but rather at its domestic policy. Recently, Chancellor Helmut Kohl's administration proposed cuts in sickness, unemployment, and retirement benefits. The government insists that only by cutting these costs can German companies remain internationally competitive.
But last Saturday, unions, women's groups, church groups, and assorted leftists fought back, accusing Mr. Kohl of embracing an "American-style" hire-and-fire system and a weakening of the social spending that "makes the market economy tolerable."
Unemployment is the core economic problem in Germany, as it is almost everywhere in Europe. Unemployment increases the ranks of beneficiaries while lowering the number of payers. After two post-World War II decades of full employment, Germany's joblessness rate has risen steadily since the mid-1970s. It now stands at a postwar high of 11 percent, or more than 4 million (another 2 million would like to work but are not accounted for in official statistics).
Germany badly needs to create jobs. Few people have pushed the panic button - only one speaker invoked the specter of another Weimar Republic - but hard times do have a way of turning suspicions into grievances.
In short, the demonstration occurred because Germans are now bringing their fundamental disagreements over what is fair and just to the political forefront. The divides are deep; Germany can no longer be considered a society with a broad consensus on social policy. A host of German institutions - from wage bargaining to vocational training - was built on this consensus that the weak have a substantial claim on the resources of the strong.
The Bonn demonstration was, predictably, a sight to see. The unions picked up the tab for buses, trains, and police while ensuring, most importantly, that no price gouging occurred at the sausage stands. Conventional wit, if not wisdom, has held that Germans could never revolt since they'd then have to walk on the grass. …