In a coordinated action, Japan and Australia announced Sept. 19 that they had adopted sanctions targeting multiple foreign entities tied to North Korea's ballistic missile and nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons programs.
The governments said that the sanctions were adopted in response to UN security Council Resolution 1695, which the council adopted in July after North Korea launched several ballistic missiles. (see ACT, September 2006.) The resolution condemned the launches and called on Pyongyang to return to the six-party talks designed to resolve the crisis surrounding the country's nuclear weapons program. The last round of such talks was held in November 2005. (see ACT, September 2006.)
The resolution requires states to prevent missiles and related "items, materials, goods and technology" from being transferred to North Korea's missile or chemical, biological, or nuclear weapons programs. This requirement includes preventing the transfer of "any financial resources in relation to" Pyongyang's weapons programs.
Australia and Japan each punished the same 12 organizations, as well as a Swiss citizen. All are already subject to similar U.S. sanctions. (see ACT, May 2006.) Japan also designated three additional institutions as suspect.
The sanctions restrict the designated entities' ability to conduct financial transactions in the two countries. In Australia, the designees are prohibited from conducting financial transactions without prior approval from the Reserve Bank of Australia, the country's central bank. A Japanese diplomat told Arms Control Today Sept. 28 that Tokyo's sanctions prohibit financial transactions between the designated entities and Japanese citizens or institutions.
During a Sept. 19 press briefing, Tomohiko Taniguchi, deputy press secretary for Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, would not say whether Tokyo plans to renew other sanctions previously imposed after the missile tests. These included barring North Korean officials and a North Korean passenger ferry from entering Japan.
A Sept. 19 Department of State press release praised the actions by Japan and Australia and indicated that Washington might place additional sanctions on North Korea in response to the missile tests.
The statement added that the United States "strongly encourage[s] other states" to take actions similar to Australia's and Japan's, but none have yet done so. For example, South Korea halted food and fertilizer assistance to North Korea following the tests but has not announced any further measures.
For its part, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Qin Gang told reporters Sept. …