A proposal of an energy management implementation model for productivity enhancement within integrated management systems.
In order to manage the economic growth, development and improved quality of life, energy plays an important role in the strategy of all countries to achieve an optimal balance of social, economical and environmental actions, while sustaining continual improvement.
On the basis of unchanged policy and laws, world's primary energy demand and related C02 emissions will increase 45% in total composing of 1.6% on average per year from 2006 to 20301. The challenges emerged at present have put pressure to establish a global strategy of energy management for the supply of reliable, affordable and environmental friendly energy with a heightened awareness of the attitudes.
Seeing the need for global cooperation strategies to handle the challenges, key actions have been taken. The United Nations and the World Bank have declared the need of energy management commitment to reduce global energy intensity by 2.5% per year over the next 20 years, either by increasing energy efficiency or by shifting to low energy intensive activities with higher levels of output and gross domestic product (GDP)2.
Separately, the European Union (EU) committed to reduce its primary energy consumption by 20% by 2020 detailed in the Green Paper published as a part of the strategy to ensure sustainable, competitive and secure energy3. The set of targets formed the most important legislative framework of EU energy policies which are: The 'RES-E Directive' 2001/77/ EC, The 'Biofuels Directive' 2003/30/EC, The 'Energy saving in buildings' 2002/91/EC, The 'Promotion of Cogeneration' 2004/8/EC, The 'Common rules for the internal market in electricity' 2003/54/EC, The 'Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trade Directive' 2003/87/EC, The 'Joint Implementation/CDM Linking Directive' 2004/101/EC and National Allocation Plans of Member States4.
After the European Parliament and Council's legislative Climate & Energy Package and 20-20-20 Targets (reduction of greenhouse emissions by at least 20%, final energy consumption with renewable energy sources by 20%, raising energy efficiency by 20% by 2020) in 2008, the European Commission published a Communication putting emphasis on the necessity of improved efficiency and decreased energy consumption leading to reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions5.
Many countries, which have already adopted the energy management systems as a part of their national standards or specifications with voluntary agreements, have proven to support the energy efficiency policy by incremental gain of energy and cost savings, environmental footprint. The existing national energy management standards are:
* Denmark: DS 2403:2001 Energy ManagementSpecification, DS/INF 136:2001 Energy ManagementGuidance on Energy Management
* Ireland: IS 393:2005 Energy Management SystemsSpecification with Guidance for Use, IS 393:2005 Technical Guideline (December 2006)
* Sweden: SS 627750:2003 Energy Management Systems-Specification
* Austria: ONORM EN 15900:2010 Energy efficiency services-Definitions and requirements, VDI 4602 Energy management - Terms and definitions
* Unites States of America: ANSI/MSE 2000:2005 A Management System for Energy
Energy management begins by establishing the systems and process required to achieve these goals that notably depend on improving the energy efficiency policy by implementing the energy management system to all organisations in all sectors of a country.
Guidelines towards the energy management system
The European standard EN 16001:2009 (Energy management systems - requirements with guidance for use) was released as a systemic management approach for establishing continual improvement of energy efficiency and energy performance in management systems of all types of organisations, using the similar …