Our nation is at war. This war does not resemble the world wars of the last century, but it threatens Americans, our global interests and our homeland. Waging this war requires constant engagement throughout the world, and it threatens to last not for years, but for generations. It is a war fought in a dynamic security environment, primarily characterized by irregular, asymmetric warfare in complex terrain. In every war, and particularly in this war, information is the critical enabler for decision makers, commanders and soldiers.
Army Intelligence is decisively engaged in the global war on terrorism, contributing to Operations Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Iraqi Freedom (OIF) with almost 3,000 deployed Military Intelligence soldiers and thousands more engaged worldwide. Army Intelligence continues to adapt and improve by applying the lessons learned by these soldiers, both deployed and at home. New intelligence capabilities that soldiers have taken to the fight in recent years include human intelligence (HUMINT) collection teams, aerostats (intelligence collection dirigibles), unmanned aerial vehicles, unattended ground sensors and personal digital assistants (PDAs). Each capability contributes both to our overall situational understanding and to the protection of soldiers.
Over this past year we have focused on improvements in three major areas: providing much higher quality intelligence down to the maneuver battalion level through the development of the joint intelligence operations center (JIOC) concept; using biometrics (unique individual signatures) to enroll, identify and track persons of interest through the deployment of a biometrics collection and dissemination capability known as the biometrics automated toolset; and increasing our soldiers' knowledge of the cultural aspects of the people they encounter while deployed. Although much work remains to be done in each of these areas, they have significantly contributed to the OIF/OEF mission and the continued transformation of Army Intelligence.
As part of the Undersecretary of Defense for Intelligence initiative to remodel defense intelligence (transforming intelligence at the Department of Defense level), the Army, U.S. Joint Forces Command and Central Command are developing, training and deploying the technologies and processes needed to conduct intelligence operations through the JIOC concept. We are taking the many disparate sensors and databases across the battlespace, uniquely identifying them and putting them into a single repository in order to allow commanders, analysts and soldiers easy access to the data for decision-making purposes. This will greatly increase the quality and timeliness of actionable intelligence available to commanders and soldiers who are planning and executing combat operations.
The JIOC concept incorporates the functions of the current joint intelligence centers with the capability to direct and execute intelligence collection operations by all service components in support of the combatant commander (COCOM). To execute the JIOC concept, Army Intelligence must accomplish four tasks: build the network, connecting the soldier to LandWarNet; connect the sensors to the network; provide the tools to evaluate the data and the reporting; and establish tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs) for intelligence personnel to deliver actionable intelligence that will enable operators to accomplish the mission. Significant to the JIOC is the initial collocation of collectors and analysts, as well as the direct response of analysts to COCOM requirements in theater.
By providing the technology to assist in the agile collection and cross-cueing of theater and national sensors tailored to their mission, location and intelligence requirements, soldiers at all levels, via a PDA, will have access to actionable intelligence. Soldiers and HUMINT collection teams will report relevant information that will be accessible at all operational levels and interface with emerging technologies and capabilities. In return, the same soldiers will receive intelligence relevant to their operations. In this manner, single-source raw intelligence information flows upward, is fused with all other intelligence sources and then is pushed back down to the tactical level.
The JIOC will be a vertically and horizontally integrated system with software tools to evaluate, organize and prioritize the data and reporting received. The JIOC will facilitate the simultaneous sharing and collaboration of intelligence at all levels for all users, providing the right intelligence to the right players at the right time, thus achieving actionable intelligence.
In April 2005, the JIOC-Iraq (JIOC-I), as a prototype of the JIOC concept, began fielding a joint network node capability to get the joint worldwide intelligence communications system (JWICS) to the brigade combat team and battalion level. The JWICS provides secure access to sensitive compartmented information. Operationally, this means soldiers will have access to very time-sensitive all-source intelligence reporting for the first time. This implementation process led to the development of an architecture and the beginning of the integration of intelligence sensor data into one common database. Full implementation of the JIOC-I to battalion level should occur by December 2005. Using the experience from the Intelligence and security Command's Information Dominance Center, a similar set of visualization and processing tools, such as data mining through multiple databases, has been adopted for use with the JIOC-I. U.S. Joint Forces Command has taken the lead to develop joint training and TTPs for the JIOC.
The JIOC-I implementation will affect the evolution of the overall JIOC concept, leading to improved JIOCs in each theater. JIOCs are in the planning stage for U.S. Southern Command and U.S. Special Operations Command. Ultimately, the developed JIOC-I methodologies will lead to materiel solutions for DoD's distributed common ground system (DCGS), resulting in a worldwide, web-based intelligence services architecture accessible via a computer workstation. This network-centric environment, based on DCGS and the JIOC will be key for the production and dissemination of actionable intelligence.
DoD recognizes the need to track individuals of interest as they move within or transit the battlespace. The science of biometrics, the use of key physiological signatures or personal traits, which uniquely identify individuals, vastly improves our capability to fulfill this requirement. Fingerprints, iris images and facial photographs are the primary biometrics collected and analyzed by the Army. The Army uses biometric collection systems to identify persons of interest in complex, hostile environments. Army Intelligence exponentially contributes to this effort by analyzing layers of data associated with the collection of the actual biometrics. We have already achieved great success in using biometrics in identifying and tracking adversaries and associating them, through intelligence analysis, with other known or suspected adversaries. In less than one year, the Army has made more than 1,500 biometrics matches. Coupled with detailed intelligence analysis, these matches have led to a number of significant military operations, including raids and apprehensions. As the biometrics architecture matures and the analytical capability improves, the number and frequency of these successes will increase.
After fighting his way to Baghdad in the opening days of OIF, a battalion commander remarked that he had ample intelligence, but what he lacked was cultural understanding. Cultural awareness is a significant force multiplier for all soldiers. The knowledge of a society's cultural characteristics within an operational area, cultural awareness, will facilitate operations, achieving and consolidating U.S. objectives with the intent of countering ideological support for terrorism.
Cultural awareness TTPs will improve intelligence collection, fusion, evaluation and dissemination, including reach to and feedback from cultural experts. In addition, it will improve the consequence and perception management of U.S. information operations capabilities because culturally aware soldiers will develop a sense for what kind of information is required, what leaders and people need to be addressed and what degree of force is needed to accomplish the mission.
All soldiers receive roughly 80 hours of cultural awareness training before deploying to OIE This training has greatly improved relations between soldiers and the Iraqi populace, leading to an increase in the confidence that the Iraqis have in U.S. soldiers and an increase in the intelligence reported to them. As a result, this reporting has led to the seizure of numerous insurgents, terrorists and criminal elements, as well as the reduction of improvised explosive device incidents.
In the future, all soldiers will have a geographic region and language as part of their skill sets. This will enhance the information they report to the network and facilitate analysis at higher levels. This analysis must focus on political, economic, social and cultural information and how those factors apply as part of the intelligence preparation for current and future operations. Cultural awareness will continue to be a critical component of operational success in today's security environment.
The focus of Army Intelligence is optimized intelligence support to the one who needs the information the most-the soldier. While the lines between the tactical, operational and strategic levels are blurring, it is our intent to provide the Army with the intelligence required to prevail at all three levels simultaneously. The transformation of Army Intelligence entails maximizing our advantages in networking, data management and analysis to enable the world's best soldiers to prevail in this tough, new fight. Our network-centric approach will enable this synergy. We continue to evolve our sensors, making them more persistent, accurate, smaller, smarter and able to work with other sensors. The improved capabilities and processes of the JIOC, the use of biometrics to identify and track persons of interest and the deployment of culturally aware soldiers will significantly enhance Army Intelligence in support of warfighters.
By Lt. Gen. Keith B. Alexander*
Deputy Chief of Staff, G-2
* Lt. Gen. Alexander is now director, National security Agency/chief, Central security Service, Fort Meade, Md., and Lt. Gen. John F. Kimmons has succeeded him.
LT. GEN. KEITH B. ALEXANDER assumed the duties as the deputy chief of staff, G-2, Headquarters, Department of the Army, Washington, D.C., in July 2003. His prior assignment was as the commanding general of the U.S. Army Intelligence and security Command at Fort Belvoir, Va. He was commissioned upon graduation from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. Previous assignments include the director of Intelligence, U.S. Central Command, MacDill Air Force Base, FIa., and deputy director for requirements, capabilities, assessments and doctrine, ]-2, for the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Gen. Alexander has served in a variety of command assignments in Germany and the United States. These include tours as commander of Border Field Office, 511th Military Intelligence (MI) Battalion, 66th MI Group; 336th Army security Agency Company, 525th MI Group; the 204th MI Battalion; and the 525th MI Brigade. In addition, Gen. Alexander has held key staff assignments as deputy director and operations officer, Army Intelligence Master Plan, for the Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence; S-3 and executive officer, 522nd MI Battalion, 2nd Armored Division; and G-2 for the 1st Armored Division, both in Germany and in Operations Desert Shield/Desert Storm in Saudi Arabia. He holds an MBA from Boston University, master's degrees in systems technology (electronic warfare) and physics from the Naval Post Graduate School and a master's degree in national security strategy from the National Defense University. His military education includes the Armor officer basic course, the Military Intelligence officer advanced course, the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College and the National War College.…