Tropman writes about American values and two groups that threaten those values. One might wonder why, in the world's wealthiest society, do the poor seem so stigmatized. Tropman's answer is that they represent potential and actual fates that create anxiety within the dominant culture and within the actual poor themselves. The response in society is hatred of the poor; among the poor themselves, self-hatred.
Pathways to Opportunity: The Role of Race, Social Networks, Institutions, and Neighborhood in Career and Educational Paths for People on Welfare Schneider, Jo Anne.
Human Organization, Vol. 59, No. 1, Spring 2000