Christian Art

Early Christian art and architecture

Early Christian art and architecture, works of art exhibiting Christian themes and structures designed for Christian worship created relatively soon after the death of Jesus. Most date from the 4th to the 6th cent. AD See also Christian iconography under iconography.

Earliest Works

Little is known about Christian art in the first two centuries after the death of Jesus. Among the earliest manifestations extant are the early 3d-century paintings on the walls of the catacombs in Rome. Whereas the style resembles that of secular Roman wall painting, the subject matter consists mainly of biblical figures. Jonah, Daniel, and Susanna appear in scenes of miracles through divine intervention. Among the motifs that symbolized the hope of resurrection and immortality are the fish and the peacock. Following the official recognition of Christianity after the Edict of Toleration (313), the scope of Early Christian art was radically enlarged.

Mosaics and Manuscript Illumination

Elaborate mosaic narrative cycles covered the upper walls, triumphal arch, and apse of basilican churches (see basilica. Some are preserved in Santa Maria Maggiore and Santa Pudenziana in Rome and Sant'Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna. The use of gold backgrounds heightens the effect of otherworldliness and transcendence. In contrast to paganism, the Christian faith was bound by the authority of sacred writings, and it placed increasing importance on the production of books and their illumination. Some fragments of the biblical text, written in silver and gold on purple vellum and sumptuously illuminated, are still preserved (see illumination). Foremost of these is the Vienna Genesis, a manuscript of the first half of the 6th cent.

Sculpture

The sculpture of the stone sarcophagus was extensively practiced in Roman art and was continued into the Christian era. In some cases subjects similar to those of the catacombs were used. In others, scenes of the life of Jesus or more ceremonious compositions were created, showing the enthroned Christ receiving the homage of the apostles. In addition, ivory carvers decorated book covers and reliquary caskets or larger objects, such as the throne of Maximianus in Ravenna, a work of the 6th cent.

Architecture

Before the legal recognition of the new faith in the early 4th cent., Christian places of worship were of necessity inconspicuous and had no fixed architectural form. Afterward, however, imposing cult edifices were erected in many parts of the Roman Empire, especially in its major cities, Rome, Constantinople, Milan, Antioch, and Ravenna. Early Christian builders adapted structures that had long been used in the Hellenistic and Roman worlds. The basilican hall, consisting of a nave flanked by lower aisles and terminated by an apse, was adopted as the standard structure in Christian congregational worship. Sant'Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna and Santa Sabina in Rome still survive as largely unaltered examples of this type.

In Early Christian architecture a distinct emphasis was placed on the centralized plan, which was of round, polygonal, or cruciform shape. Baptisteries and memorial shrines (martyria) were based on the traditionally centralized Roman funerary monument. Martyria were erected on sites connected with certain events in the life of Jesus and other places held to be sanctified by the sacrifice of the martyrs. In such buildings as Saint Peter's in Rome and the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem, the martyrium structure and basilica were combined, creating a new formal synthesis of great significance for the religious architecture of the medieval period.

Eastern Traditions

A distinct type of Christian art and architecture was evolved in Egypt (see Coptic art). In the eastern part of the Roman Empire the development of the Early Christian tradition was continued under the auspices of the Byzantine emperors (see Byzantine art and architecture).

Bibliography

See R. Krautheimer, Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture (1965); J. Beckwith, Early Christian and Byzantine Art (1970).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

The Beginnings of Christian Art
D. Talbot Rice.
Abingdon Press, 1957
Christian Art
C. R. Morey.
Longmans, Green, 1935
Roman Sources of Christian Art
Emerson H. Swift.
Columbia University Press, 1951
Art in the Early Church
Walter Lowrie.
Pantheon books, 1947
The Invisible God: The Earliest Christians on Art
Paul Corby Finney.
Oxford University Press, 1994
The Early Christians
Michael Gough.
Frederick A. Praeger, 1961
Librarian’s tip: Chap. III "Christian Art before Constantine" and Chap. VII "The Art of a Christian Empire"
The Early Christian World
Philip F. Esler.
Routledge, vol.2, 2000
Librarian’s tip: Chap. Twenty-Eight "Art"
Medieval Art
Marilyn Stokstad.
Harper & Row, 1986
Librarian’s tip: Chap. II "The Art of the Triumphant Christian Church"
Word and Image: An Introduction to Early Medieval Art
William J. Diebold.
Westview Press, 2000
The Role of Art in the Late Anglo-Saxon Church
Richard Gameson.
Clarendon Press, 1995
Christian Faith and the Contemporary Arts
Finley Eversole.
Abingdon Press, 1962
Christianity and the Renaissance: Image and Religious Imagination in the Quattrocento
Timothy Verdon; John Henderson.
Syracuse University Press, 1990
The Grief of God: Images of the Suffering Jesus in Late Medieval England
Ellen M. Ross.
Oxford University Press, 1997
Survival of Early Christian Symbolism in Monastic Churches of New Spain and Visions of the Millennial Kingdom
Schuetz-Miller, Mardith K.
Journal of the Southwest, Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 2000
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Early Christian Mosaics, from the Fourth to the Seventh Centuries: Rome, Naples, Milan, Ravenna
W. F. Volbach.
Oxford University Press, 1946
Each with His Own Brush: Contemporary Christian Art in Asia and Africa
Daniel Johnson Fleming.
Friendship Press, 1938
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