Arshile Gorky

Arshile Gorky (är´shīl gôr´kē), c.1900–48, American painter, b. Armenia as Vosdanig Adoian. He escaped the Turkish slaughter of Armenians, emigrated to the United States in 1920, studied at Boston's New School of Design, and moved to New York City in 1925. An extraordinarily fluid draftsman inspired by Ingres, Picasso, and several other artists, Gorky developed a figurative style of great refinement. A more radical turn in his art was prompted by the spontaneous automatism found in surrealism and in the works of Miró and Matta. Gorky began (c.1940) to create abstractions consisting of involved, voluptuously organic shapes and glowing colors, all enveloped in an aura of mystery. In these works he became a pioneer in the development of abstract expressionism. His reputation had already been established when, after a series of personal and professional disasters, he committed suicide at the age of 44. Gorky is well represented in American collections, e. g., in New York City, Water of the Flowery Mill is in the Metropolitan Museum and there are works at the Museum of Modern Art and the Whitney Museum.

See catalog by J. Levy (1966); biographies by D. Waldman (1987), M. Spender (1999), and H. Herrera (2003); H. Rosenberg, Arshile Gorky: The Man, the Time, the Idea (1962, repr. 1981); K. Mooradian, The Many Worlds of Arshile Gorky (1981); H. Rand, Arshile Gorky: The Implications of Symbols (1981); C. Zwerin, dir., Arshile Gorky (documentary film, 1982).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Arshile Gorky: The Man, the Time, the Idea
Harold Rosenberg.
Grove Press, 1962
Arshile Gorky: Paintings, Drawings, Studies
William C. Seitz; Julien Levy.
Museum of Modern Art, 1962
The Triumph of American Painting: A History of Abstract Expressionism
Irving Sandler.
Harper & Row, 1976
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 3 "Arshile Gorky (1904-48)"
On Modern American Art: Selected Essays
Robert Rosenblum.
Harry N. Abrams Publishers, 1999
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of Ashile Gorky begins on p. 49
New Art in America: Fifty Painters of the 20th Century
John I. H. Baur.
New York Graphic Society, 1957
Librarian’s tip: "Ashile Gorky" begins on p. 188
Arshile Gorky: 'How My Mother's Embroidered Apron Unfolds in My Life,' 1944
Ash, John.
Artforum International, Vol. 34, No. 1, September 1995
Modern Painting: Contemporary Trends
Nello Ponente.
Skira, 1960
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of Ashile Gorky begins on p. 95
A Concise History of American Painting and Sculpture
Matthew Baigell.
Icon Editions, 1996 (Revised edition)
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of Ashile Gorky begins on p. 305
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