Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (zhäN ōgüst´ dômēnēk´ ăN´grə), 1780–1867, French painter, b. Montauban; son of a sculptor. He studied with J. L. David in Paris and in 1801 won the Prix de Rome. The French government could not afford to award the prize until 1806. In the Salon of that year Ingres exhibited his portrait of Madame Rivière (Louvre), an extraordinarily graceful and linear composition that marked him as an unparalleled draftsman. It also made clear his sensitivity, which put him at odds with the strict neoclassicists of his day. This bizarre element in Ingres's work was made more disturbingly explicit in Jupiter and Thetis (1811; Musée Granet). For 18 years (1806–24) he lived in Italy, where he supported himself and his family by portraiture. Some of his pencil portraits of this period are considered among his finest productions (e.g., Paganini, 1819). Upon his return to Paris he was hailed the bulwark of Davidian classicism for his Vow of Louis XIII (cathedral, Montauban), although his true inspiration had always been Raphael. He lived in Paris until 1834, receiving many commissions and honors and returning to Rome as director of the Académie de France à Rome. There, during the remainder of his long life, he occupied a preeminent position as teacher and artist. After his death the Ingres Museum, housing a large collection of his paintings and drawings, was instituted in his native Montauban. His followers, the Ingristes, adopted his academicism but lacked his genius. Many later artists (e.g., Degas, Renoir, Puvis de Chavannes, and Picasso) have acknowledged their debt to him. The Louvre has a large collection of his work, ranging from rigidly academic compositions like The Apotheosis of Homer (1827) to the intimate, sensual nudes such as Bather of Valpinçon (1808) and The Turkish Bath (1852–63). Several of his paintings are in the Metropolitan Museum. There is a remarkable portrait of the comtesse d'Haussonville (1845) in the Frick Collection, New York City.

See Ingres Centennial Exhibition (1967); studies by J. Whitely (1981) and R. Rosenblum (1985).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Ingres Then, and Now
Adrian Rifkin.
Routledge, 2000
Ingres
Walter Pach.
Harper & Brothers, 1939
An Outline of 19th Century European Painting: From David through Cézanne
Lorenz Eitner.
Westview Press, 1992
Librarian’s tip: "Jean-Dominique Ingres, 1780-1867" begins on p. 157
Painting and Sculpture in Europe, 1780 to 1880
Fritz Novotny.
Penguin Books, 1960
Librarian’s tip: "Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780-1867)" begins on p. 19
The Mirror of Art, Critical Studies
Charles Baudelaire; Jonathan Mayne; Jonathan Mayne.
Phaidon Publishers, 1955
Librarian’s tip: "Ingres" begins on p. 200
Ingres at the Metropolitan
Wilkin, Karen.
New Criterion, Vol. 18, No. 3, November 1999
The Large Miniatures of Ingres: 'Portraits by Ingres' at the National Gallery
Bruce, Donald.
Contemporary Review, Vol. 274, No. 1599, April 1999
Culture and Society in France, 1789-1848
F. W. J. Hemmings.
Peter Lang, 1987
Librarian’s tip: "Ingres" begins on p. 177
FREE! Modern Art: Being a Contribution to a New System of Aesthetics
Julius Meier-Graefe; Florence Simmonds; George W. Chrystal.
G. P. Putnam's Sons, vol.1, 1908
Librarian’s tip: "Ingres" begins on p. 36
The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists
Ian Chilvers.
Oxford University Press, 1996 (2nd edition)
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres begins on p. 256
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