Max Ernst

Max Ernst (mäks ĕrnst) 1891–1976, German painter. After World War I, Ernst joined the Dada movement in Paris and then became a founder of surrealism. Apart from the medium of collage, for which he is well known, Ernst developed other devices to express his fantastic vision. In frottage he rubbed black chalk on paper held against various materials such as leaves, wood, and fabrics to achieve bizarre effects. He was also the author of several volumes of collage novels. A note of whimsy often characterizes his dreamlike landscapes while other works reveal an allegorical imagination. Two Children Are Threatened by a Nightingale and several other works are in the Museum of Modern Art, New York City.

See his Beyond Painting (1948); studies by J. Russell (1967) and U. M. Schneede (1973); R. Rainwater, Max Ernst, Beyond Surrealism: An Exhibition of the Artist's Books and Prints (1986); W. A. Camfield, ed., Max Ernst: Dada and the Dawn of Surrealism (1993); W. Spies, ed., Max Ernst: A Retrospective (2005).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Max Ernst
William S. Lieberman.
Museum of Modern Art, 1961
Marcel Duchamp and Max Ernst: The Bride Shared
David Hopkins.
Clarendon Press, 1998
The Beribboned Bomb: The Image of Woman in Male Surrealist Art
Robert Belton.
University of Calgary Press, 1995
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 4 "Tropes of Perversion" and Chap. 5 "Tropes of Novelty"
The Imagery of Surrealism
J. H. Matthews.
Syracuse University Press, 1977
A Concise History of Modern Painting
Herbert Read.
Frederick A. Praeger, 1959
Librarian’s tip: Chap. Four "Futurism, Dada, Surrealism"
A Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Art
Ian Chilvers.
Oxford University Press, 1999
Librarian’s tip: "Ernst, Max (1891-1976)" begins on p. 196
André Breton and the Basic Concepts of Surrealism
Michel Carrouges; Maura Prendergast.
University of Alabama Press, 1974
Librarian’s tip: Chap. Five "Surrealist Painting and Objects"
German Painting in Our Time
Gerhard Händler.
Rembrandt-Verlag, 1956
Librarian’s tip: "Surrealism" begins on p. 42
Surrealism and the Exotic
Louise Tythacott.
Routledge, 2002
The Fantastic in World Literature and the Arts: Selected Essays from the Fifth International Conference on the Fantastic in the Arts
Donald E. Morse.
Greenwood Press, 1987
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 14 "Charlotte Stokes Surrealist as Religious Visionary: Max Ernst's Reve D'Une Petite Fille Qui Voulut Entrer Au Carmel (1930)"
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