Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (rĕm´brănt, Du. rĕm´bränt här´mənsōn vän rīn), 1606–69, Dutch painter, etcher, and draftsman, b. Leiden. Rembrandt is acknowledged as the greatest master of the Dutch school.

Early Life

A miller's son, Rembrandt attended a Latin school and spent part of one year at the Univ. of Leiden, leaving in 1621 to study painting with a local artist, Jacob van Swanenburgh. His most valuable training was received during the six months of 1624 that he spent in the studio of Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam. Lastman's work affected Rembrandt's in his sense of composition and his frequent choice of religious and historical themes. Receptive to many influences at this time, Rembrandt sometimes reflected the dramatic chiaroscuro of Caravaggio in paintings such as The Money Changer (Berlin) or the more delicate and detailed manner of Elsheimer as in The Tribute Money (London).

The Leiden Years

In 1625 Rembrandt returned to Leiden, where he developed his own distinct style, using the many possibilities of the oil medium, heavily layering the paint, and experimenting with diverse techniques. He showed an unusual preference for the faces of the old and the poor from his earliest works to his latest (e.g., Two Philosophers, Melbourne). In the Leiden years he began the magnificent series of nearly 100 self-portraits that describe the continuing development of his profound self-understanding and self-awareness, as well as his stylistic growth. While in Leiden he collaborated with Jan Lievens and began to teach. He devoted much of his life to teaching, and one of his foremost pupils in Leiden was Gerard Dou.

Amsterdam: Success, Bankruptcy, and a Developing Style

Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam in 1632, where he became established as a portrait painter with his group portrait Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp (1632; The Hague), a traditional subject to which he gave radical treatment. His commissioned portraits include those of Minister Johannes Elison and his wife (Mus. of Fine Arts, Boston) and Nicolas Ruts (Frick Coll., New York City). His position in Amsterdam was further solidified by the dowry and social connections gained by his joyous marriage to Saskia van Ulyenburgh, a burgomaster's daughter.

Affluent and successful, he began to collect numerous works of art, costumes, and curiosities, always learning from the art and often using the costumes in his portraits. During this period his style acquired a new richness of color and greater plasticity of form. He incorporated the vigor, opulence, and drama of the baroque movement, best seen in The Sacrifice of Abraham (St. Petersburg) and The Blinding of Samson (1636, Frankfurt). His studio was filled with pupils, including Jacob Backer, Govaert Flinck, Ferdinand Bol, and later the gifted Carel Fabritius and Nicholas Maes.

Serious financial difficulties began for Rembrandt with his purchase of an impressive house in 1639. Saskia died in 1642 after the birth of their only surviving child, Titus, who was later to become Rembrandt's favorite portrait subject. During the same year he completed his most famous group portrait, The Shooting Company of Capt. Frans Banning Cocq (Rijksmus.) This work is traditionally called The Night Watch, although a cleaning in 1946–47 revealed a daylight setting. In this work and others instead of painting a conventional group portrait, Rembrandt made of it a crowd spectacle, sacrificing individual identities to dramatic, high-contrast lighting.

During the 1640s Rembrandt developed an enduring interest in landscape. He made numerous etchings, including Three Trees and Christ Healing the Sick, executed with exceptional spontaneity and vigor, and created many works solely for his own pleasure, an unusual practice for his time. This, together with his art collecting, eventually caused financial ruin.

Later Years, Late Masterworks

In 1660 his housekeeper and devoted love for many years, Hendrickje Stoffels, and Titus formed a business partnership to shield the bankrupt Rembrandt from his creditors. In the last two decades of his life Rembrandt, withdrawn from society and no longer fashionable, created many of his masterpieces. These works were more concerned with human character than with outward appearance and are the foundation of his unequaled reputation. Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer (1653; Metropolitan Mus.) reveals his power to elicit a mood of profound mystery and meditation. Among the other remarkable paintings of this period is Bathsheba (Louvre); two of the notable etchings are Three Crosses (1653) and Christ Presented to the People (1655).

The powerful night scene The Conspiracy of the Batavians (1661; Stockholm) is the remaining fragment of his most monumental historical work. To the 1660s belong The Family Group (Brunswick), The Jewish Bride (Rijksmus.), and The Syndics of the Cloth Guild (1662; Rijksmus.), all of which are loosely structured, flamelike in color, and psychologically penetrating. Personal tragedy struck the master with the death of Hendrickje in 1663 and of Titus in 1668. Rembrandt lived for one more year, survived by Cornelia, his and Hendrickje's only child.

Achievement

The universal appeal of Rembrandt's art rests upon its profound humanity. His surpassing handling of light was recognized even when his critics considered that his subject matter was vulgar and indecorous. The prodigious output of his lifetime is known to embrace more than 600 paintings, about 300 etchings, and nearly 2,000 drawings. To each medium he gave his best effort.

Museum Collections

Rembrandt's work can be found in many European and American museums. The best collections are in Amsterdam, Berlin, The Hague, St. Petersburg, New York City, and Washington, D.C. The Louvre, the British Museum, and the Rijksmuseum have good collections of his etchings and drawings. In 1968 a group of eminent Dutch scholars under the sponsorship of the Netherlands Organization for the Advancement of Scientific Research formed a committee to reassess the authenticity of works attributed to Rembrandt and compile a complete critical catalog of his paintings. Known as the Rembrandt Research Project (RRP), it has used a variety of sophisticated analytical techniques and has substantially reduced the number of paintings definitely considered to have been painted by the artist. By the end of the 20th cent. the RRP had produced three volumes of an anticipated five-volume work entitled A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings.

Bibliography

Comprehensive editions of his works have been compiled: his paintings by A. Bredius (rev. by H. Gerson, 3d ed. 1969), his etchings by A. M. Hind (2d ed. 1923, repr. 1967), and his drawings by O. Benesch (6 vol., 1954–58).

See studies of his life and works by O. Benesch, Essays on Rembrandt (Vol. I of Benesch's Collected Works, tr. 1970); biographies by L. Munz and B. Haak (1984) and G. Schwartz (1986); studies by O. Banks (1982) and S. Schama (1999).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Rembrandt: The Painter at Work
Ernst van de Wetering.
Amsterdam University Press, 2000
Rembrandt: Biographical and Critical Study
Otto Benesch; James Emmons.
Skira, 1957
Rembrandt: Selected Paintings
Tancred Borenius; Rembrandt.
Phaidon Press, 1942
Rembrandt and His School: A Critical Study of the Master and His Pupils with a New Assignment of Their Pictures
John C. Van Dyke.
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1923
Rembrandt Drawings from American Collections
Pierpoint Morgan Library.
Pierpont Morgan Library, 1960
The Masters of Past Time: Dutch and Flemish Painting from Van Eyck to Rembrandt
Eugene Fromentin.
Phaidon, 1948
Rembrandt: Being the Substance of the Charles Eliot Norton Lectures Delivered before Harvard University, 1930-1931
Arthur M. Hind.
Harvard University Press, 1932
Rembrandt, the Jews and the Bible
Franz Landsberger; Felix N. Gerson.
Jewish Publication Society, 1946
Dutch Jewry: Its History and Secular Culture (1500-2000)
Jonathan Israel; Reinier Salverda.
Brill, 2002
Librarian’s tip: "How Deep Was the Relationship between Rembrandt and the Jews?" begins on p. 173
Transformation: Emergence of the Self
Murray Stein.
Texas A&M University Press, 1998
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 4 "Three Portraits of Transformation: Rembrandt, Picasso, Jung"
Ideas in Cultural Perspective
Philip P. Wiener; Aaron Noland.
Rutgers University Press, 1962
Librarian’s tip: "Rembrandt and His Contemporary Critics" begins on p. 207
Dutch Drawings and Prints
J. G. van Gelder.
Harry N. Abrams, 1959
Librarian’s tip: Chap. IV "Rembrandt and His Pupils" and Chap. V "Rembrandt's Younger Contemporaries"
Dutch Painting in the Seventeenth Century
Madlyn Millner Kahr.
Icon Editions, 1993 (2nd edition)
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 6 "Rembrandt" and Chap. 7 "The Rembrandt School"
The Bite of the Print: Satire and Irony in Woodcuts, Engravings, Etchings, Lithographs and Serigraphs
Dorothy Getlein; Dorothy V. Getlein.
C. N. Potter, 1963
Librarian’s tip: Chap. Six "Rembrandt"
The Expert versus the Object: Judging Fakes and False Attributions in the Visual Arts
Ronald D. Spencer.
Oxford University Press, 2004
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 2 "Rembrandt and a Brief History of Connoisseurship"
Rembrandt, Reputation, and the Practice of Connoisseurship
Catherine B. Scallen.
Amsterdam University Press, 2004
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