Broadcast Regulation


broadcasting, transmission of sound or images to a large number of receivers by radio or television. In the United States the first regularly scheduled radio broadcasts began in 1920 at 8XK (later KDKA) in Pittsburgh. The sale of advertising was started in 1922, establishing commercial broadcasting as an industry. Radio became increasingly attractive as an advertising medium with the coming of network operation. A coast-to-coast hookup was tentatively effected early in 1924, and expansion of both audience and transmission facilities continued rapidly. By 1927 there were two major networks, and the number of stations had so increased that interference became a serious problem. Legislation (see Federal Communications Commission) designed to meet this problem was enacted, and the government has since maintained some control over the technical and business activities of the industry. By 2003, 4,804 commercial radio stations were operating in the original AM (amplitude modulation) broadcast band. Commercial broadcasting on the FM (frequency modulation) band began in 1941. The number of FM stations passed the number of AM in 1983; in 1998 there were 6,179 commercial FM stations on the air, and 2,400 noncommercial stations.

Experiments in broadcasting television began in the 1920s but were interrupted by World War II. In 1996 there were 1,340 commercial television stations on the air, and 600 noncommercial stations. There were also more than 2,000 low-power television stations. The Corporation for Public Broadcasting was established in 1968 as a not-for-profit, nongovernmental agency to finance the growth of noncommercial radio and television; by 2003 the network served more than 200 television and nearly 800 radio stations.

New and competing technologies have had a tremendous impact on broadcasting and the ways in which people use it. With the availability of small, high-quality portable and automotive receivers, it has been estimated that less than half of all radio listening takes place in the home. Cable television, which reached more than 67% of all U.S. homes by 2003, gave consumers a wider choice of programs from which to choose. The new cable channels, most of them highly specialized in the programming they offer, coupled with the wide availability of videocassettes and then DVDs, reduced the influence of the broadcast networks. Television and radio signals are also now transmitted from satellites direct to household satellite dishes, and television and radio programs may now be viewed, heard, or downloaded over the Internet using a computer, smart phone, or another electronics device.

See radio; television.

See E. Barnouw, A History of Broadcasting in the United States (3 vol., 1966–70); J. R. Bittner, Broadcasting and Telecommunication: An Introduction (1985); S. J. Douglas, Inventing American Broadcasting, 1899–1922 (1997); J. R. Walker and D. A. Ferguson, The Broadcast Television Industry (1998).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Broadcasting Law: A Comparative Study
Eric Barendt.
Clarendon Press, 1993
Regulating the Future: Broadcasting Technology and Governmental Control
W. A. Kelly Huff.
Greenwood Press, 2001
The First Amendment under Siege: The Politics of Broadcast Regulation
Richard E. Labunski.
Greenwood Press, 1981
Essential Principles of Communications Law
Donald E. Lively.
Praeger, 1992
Librarian’s tip: Part Two "Structural Regulation of the Media" and Part Three "Content Regulation of the Media"
The Unique Nature of Communications Regulation: Evidence and Implications for Communications Policy Analysis
Napoli, Philip M.
Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 43, No. 4, Fall 1999
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Avoiding Slim Reasoning and Shady Results: A Proposal for Indecency and Obscenity Regulation in Radio and Broadcast Television
Rigney, Jacob T.
Federal Communications Law Journal, Vol. 55, No. 2, March 2003
Expanding Free Expression in the Marketplace: Broadcasting and the Public Forum
Dom Caristi.
Quorum Books, 1992
Modern Communications Law
Donald E. Lively.
Praeger Publishers, 1991
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 5 "The Broadcasting Industry"
Law and Disorder in Cyberspace: Abolish the FCC and Let Common Law Rule the Telecosm
Peter Huber.
Oxford University Press, 1997
The V-Chip in Canada and the United States: Themes and Variations in Design and Deployment
McDowell, Stephen D.; Maitland, Carleen.
Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 42, No. 4, Fall 1998
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Measuring the Nexus: The Relationship between Minority Ownership and Broadcast Diversity after Metro Broadcasting
Hammond, Allen S., IV.
Federal Communications Law Journal, Vol. 51, No. 3, May 1999
A Legislative History of the Communications Act of 1934
Max D. Paglin.
Oxford University Press, 1989
Broadcasting and the Bill of Rights
National Association of Broadcasters.
National Association of Broadcasters, 1947
The Modern Stentors: Radio Broadcasters and the Federal Government, 1920-1934
Philip Rosen.
Greenwood Press, 1980
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