Advertising's Effect on Children


advertising, in general, any openly sponsored offering of goods, services, or ideas through any medium of public communication. At its inception advertising was merely an announcement; for example, entrepreneurs in ancient Egypt used criers to announce ship and cargo arrivals. The invention of printing, however, may be said to have ushered in modern advertising. After the influence of salesmanship began to insert itself into public notice in the 18th cent., the present elaborate form of advertising began to evolve. The advertising agency, working on a commission basis, has been chiefly responsible for this evolution. The largest group of advertisers are the food marketers, followed by marketers of drugs and cosmetics, soaps, automobiles, tobacco, appliances, and oil products. The major U.S. advertising media are newspapers, magazines, television and radio, business publications, billboards, and circulars sent through the mail. With the advent of the wide availability of electronic mail and access to the World Wide Web in the 1990s, the Internet has also become an important advertising venue. Since many large advertising agencies were once located on Madison Avenue in New York City, the term "Madison Avenue" is frequently used to symbolize the advertising business. The major criticisms of advertising are that it creates false values and impels people to buy things they neither need nor want and that, in fact, may be actually harmful (such as cigarettes). In reply, its defenders say that advertising is meant to sell products, not create values; that it can create a new market for products that fill a genuine, though latent, need; and that it furthers product improvement through free competition. The Association of National Advertisers and the American Association of Advertising Agencies, both founded in 1917, are the major associations.

See M. Mayer, Madison Avenue, U.S.A. (1958); R. Glatzer, The New Advertising (1970); R. Hovland and G. Wilcox, ed., Advertising in Society (1988); W. Wells et al., Advertising: Principles & Practice (4th ed. 1998); J. B. Twitchell, Adcult, USA (1995) and 20 Ads That Shook the World: The Century's Most Groundbreaking Advertising and How It Changed Us All (2000).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Children as Consumers: Advertising and Marketing
Calvert, Sandra L.
The Future of Children, Vol. 18, No. 1, Spring 2008
Advertising to Children on TV: Content, Impact, and Regulation
Barrie Gunter; Caroline Oates; Mark Blades.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2005
Television and Child Development
Judith Van Evra.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004 (3rd edition)
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 7 "Advertising and Behavior"
Selling the Dream: Why Advertising Is Good Business
John Hood.
Praeger, 2005
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 7 "Advertising and the Consuming Child"
The Faces of Televisual Media: Teaching, Violence, Selling to Children
Edward L. Palmer; Brian M. Young.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003 (2nd edition)
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 15 "Television Advertising and Children: Examining the Intended and Unintended Effects"
Parental Mediation of Undesired Advertising Effects
Buijzen, Moniek; Valkenburg, Patti M.
Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 49, No. 2, June 2005
The Effects of Advertising, Social Influences, and Self-Efficacy on Adolescent Tobacco Use and Alcohol Consumption
Kinard, Brian R.; Webster, Cynthia.
The Journal of Consumer Affairs, Vol. 44, No. 1, Spring 2010
Study: Teenagers Exposed to Alcohol Ads Drink More
Diverse Issues in Higher Education, Vol. 23, No. 1, February 23, 2006
Food Marketing to Youth: Pervasive, Powerful, and Pernicious
Schwartz, Marlene B.; Kunkel, Dale; DeLucia, Sarah.
Communication Research Trends, Vol. 32, No. 2, June 2013
The Impact of Television Advertising on Children's Christmas Wishes
Buijzen, Moniek; Valkenburg, Patti M.
Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 44, No. 3, Summer 2000
Influences Exerted on the Child Viewer When Exposed to Violent Imagery in Television and Print Advertising
Shimanovsky, Michael; Lewis, Barbara Jo.
Journal of Evolutionary Psychology, Vol. 29, No. 1-2, October 2006
Marketing Violence: The Special Toll on Young Children of Color
Levin, Diane E.; Carlsson-Paige, Nancy.
The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 72, No. 4, Fall 2003
The Effect of Physical Attractiveness of Models on Advertising Effectiveness for Male and Female Adolescents
Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang.
Adolescence, Vol. 42, No. 168, Winter 2007
Social Marketing and Distracted Driving Behaviors among Young Adults: The Effectiveness of Fear Appeals
Lennon, Ron; Rentfro, Randall; O'Leary, Bay.
Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, Vol. 14, No. 2, July 2010
Children's Responses to the Screen: A Media Psychological Approach
Patti M. Valkenburg.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 5 "Children and Advertising"
Raising Consumers: Children and the American Mass Market in the Early Twentieth Century
Lisa Jacobson.
Columbia University Press, 2004
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 1 "'Big Sales from Little Folks': The Development of Juvenile Advertising"
Intoxicating Brands: Alcohol Advertising and Youth
Jernigan, David.
Multinational Monitor, Vol. 29, No. 1, July-August 2008
The Extent of Global Alcohol Marketing and Its Impact on Youth
Jernigan, David H.
Contemporary Drug Problems, Vol. 37, No. 1, Spring 2010
The Influence of Individual Factors on the Effectiveness of Message Content in Antismoking Advertisements Aimed at Adolescents
Smith, Karen H.; Stutts, Mary Ann.
The Journal of Consumer Affairs, Vol. 40, No. 2, Winter 2006
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