Animal Rights

animal-rights movement

animal-rights movement, diverse individuals and groups concerned with protecting animals from perceived abuse or misuse. Supporters are specifically concerned with the use of animals for medical and cosmetics testing, the killing of animals for furs, hunting for pleasure, and the raising of livestock in restrictive or inhumane quarters, so-called factory farming. Concern for inhumane treatment of animals has led many supporters of the movement to advocate vegetarianism. Although the movement can trace its roots to the antivivisection campaigns (see vivisection) of the 19th cent., the modern movement is closely tied to environmental issues. In the early 1970s, environmental activist organizations, such as Greenpeace, began protesting against the annual slaughter of Canadian fur seals and against commercial whaling. The movement gained support in the 1980s with increasing opposition to the commercial fur industry and objections to the indiscriminate or routine use of laboratory animals in research and testing. By the 1990s, membership in major national animal-rights organizations, such as People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, had grown dramatically. Animal-rights campaigns have been responsible in large part for substantial tightening of regulation in the use of animals for research.

See P. Singer, Animal Liberation (1975); T. Reagan, The Case for Animal Rights (1983).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Animal Rights: A Very Short Introduction
David DeGrazia.
Oxford University Press, 2002
Animal Rights: What Everyone Needs to Know
Paul Waldau.
Oxford University Press, 2011
The Animal Question: Why Nonhuman Animals Deserve Human Rights
Paola Cavalieri; Catherine Woollard.
Oxford University Press, 2001
Animal Rights: Current Debates and New Directions
Cass R. Sunstein; Martha C. Nussbaum.
Oxford University Press, 2004
People Promoting and People Opposing Animal Rights: In Their Own Words
John M. Kistler.
Greenwood Press, 2002
A Modest Proposal for Advancing Animal Rights
Sullivan, Diane M.; Vietzke, Holly; Coyne, Michael L.
Albany Law Review, Vol. 71, No. 4, Fall 2008
Ethics and the Beast: A Speciesist Argument for Animal Liberation
Tzachi Zamir.
Princeton University Press, 2007
Animal Rights and Moral Philosophy
Julian H. Franklin.
Columbia University Press, 2005
Four Legs Good, Two Legs Bad: The Anti-Human Values of "Animal Rights"
Smith, Wesley J.
The Human Life Review, Vol. 33, No. 1, Winter 2007
What Animals Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy
Larry Carbone.
Oxford University Press, 2004
Zoos and Animal Rights: The Ethics of Keeping Animals
Stephen C. Bostock.
Routledge, 1993
Rattling the Cage: Toward Legal Rights for Animals
Steven M. Wise.
Perseus Books, 2000
Going Wild: Hunting, Animal Rights, and the Contested Meaning of Nature
Jan E. Dizard.
University of Massachusetts Press, 1999 (Revised edition)
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