Deportation of Illegal Aliens


deportation, expulsion of an alien from a country by an act of its government. The term is not applied ordinarily to sending a national into exile or to committing one convicted of crime to an overseas penal colony (historically called transportation). In international law the right to send an alien to the country to which he or she owes allegiance (or to any country that will accept him or her) derives from a government's sovereignty. In the United States, deportation is the responsibility of the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement of the Dept. of Homeland Security.

Except under the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 there was no American deportation law until the enactment in 1882 of a statute aimed at certain Chinese immigrants. The class of deportable aliens was subsequently enlarged several times, coming to include persons who before their entry into the United States were insane, feeble-minded, illiterate, or diseased in various ways. Many foreigners suspected of involvement in radical political activity were deported during the "Red Scare" of 1919. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 removed the statute of limitations on any kind of deportation.

The largest group of deported persons are those who have entered the country illegally. In the 1980s and 1990s expulsion of some of the numerous refugees from such Caribbean countries as Cuba and Haiti raised controversy. A deported alien cannot reenter the United States without special permission from the attorney general.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Operation Gatekeeper: The Rise of the "Illegal Alien" and the Making of the U.S.-Mexico Boundary
Joseph Nevins.
Routledge, 2002
The Untold Story of Noncriminal Habeas Corpus and the 1996 Immigration Acts
Hafetz, Jonathan L.
The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 107, No. 8, June 1998
Search and Seizure Protections for Undocumented Aliens: The Territoriality and Voluntary Presence Principles in Fourth Amendment Law
Connell, James G.,, III; Valladares, Rene L.
American Criminal Law Review, Vol. 34, No. 4, Summer 1997
The Exit Fiction: Unconstitutional Indefinite Detention of Deportable Aliens
Morris, Maria V.
Houston Journal of International Law, Vol. 23, No. 2, Winter 2001
The Future of Aliens Ordered Removed from the United States in the Wake of Zadvydas V. Davis
Reckers, Rob.
Houston Journal of International Law, Vol. 25, No. 1, Fall 2002
Courtroom Access Principles Apply to Deportation Hearings
Olson, Kathleen K.
Newspaper Research Journal, Vol. 24, No. 1, Winter 2003
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Citizens, Strangers, and In-Betweens: Essays on Immigration and Citizenship
Peter H. Schuck.
Westview Press, 1998
Librarian’s tip: "The 'Civil' Nature of Deportation" begins on p. 34, and "Deportation and Due Process" begins on p. 62
Asian Americans and the Supreme Court: A Documentary History
Hyung-Chan Kim.
Greenwood Press, 1992
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 2 "Deportation and Expulsion"
Deportation of Aliens from the United States to Europe
Jane Perry Clark.
Columbia University Press, 1931
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