Corporate Mergers and Acquisitions

merger

merger, in corporate business, fusion of two or more corporations by the transfer of all property to a single corporation. The remaining corporation continues in existence, having absorbed the other(s). Mergers may be of various types: A vertical merger integrates different types of businesses that may share a supplier-customer relationship; a horizontal merger brings together related businesses; an extensional merger. joins two similar businesses to enter a new market; and a hostile takeover occurs when a stronger business absorbs another against its will. The methods of effecting mergers vary. Often the corporation that continues to function makes an outright purchase of the property and stock of the others; exchange of bonds, options, and other agreements are also employed by the corporations involved.

Mergers may be effected to increase profits and reduce losses through the reduction of competition, to diversify production, to protect against the liabilities of concentration in a single area, or to revive or rejuvenate failing businesses by the infusion of new management and personnel. Mergers for monopolistic purposes were among the unfair practices that the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) and, more especially, the Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) attempted to correct. The international nature of many modern corporations now also subjects mergers to antitrust scrutiny overseas, particularly in the European Union.

The end of the 20th cent. witnessed a great increase in mergers; in the United States alone, 60,375 mergers involving a total of over $4.5 trillion occurred between 1980 and 1996. Among the largest recent U.S. mergers are those between America Online and Time Warner (2000; $165 billion, but worth significantly less after the bubble in Internet-related stocks collapsed), Exxon and Mobil (1999; $81 billion); Citicorp and Travelers Corp. (1998; $72.6 billion), AT&T and Bell South (2006; $67 billion), SBC Communications and Ameritech (1998; $60.1 billion), and AT&T and TCI (1999; $48 billion).

See also conglomerate.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Mergers & Acquisitions from A to Z
Andrew J. Sherman.
American Management Association, 2011 (3rd edition)
The Complete Guide to Mergers and Acquisitions: Process Tools to Support M&A Integration at Every Level
Timothy J. Galpin; Mark Herndon.
Jossey-Bass, 2000
The Morning After: Making Corporate Mergers Work after the Deal Is Sealed
Stephen J. Wall; Shannon Rye Wall.
Perseus Publishing, 2000
Mergers and Acquisitions: A Guide to Creating Value for Stakeholders
Michael A. Hitt; Jeffrey S. Harrison; R. Duane Ireland.
Oxford University Press, 2001
Integrating Newly Merged Organizations
Michael P. Gendron.
Praeger, 2004
Restructuring American Corporations: Causes, Effects, and Implications
Abbass F. Alkhafaji.
Quorum Books, 1990
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 3 "Corporate Mergers"
A Buy-Side Model of M & A Lockups: Theory and Evidence
Coates, John C., IV; Subramanian, Guhan.
Stanford Law Review, Vol. 53, No. 2, November 2000
Why Premerger Review Needed Reform, and Still Does
Howell, Andrew G.
William and Mary Law Review, Vol. 43, No. 4, March 2002
The New Corporate Cultures: Revitalizing the Workplace after Downsizing, Mergers, and Reengineering
Terrence E. Deal; Allan A. Kennedy.
Perseus Publishing, 2000
The Human Side of Mergers and Acquisitions: Understanding and Managing Human Resource Integration Issues
Legare, Thomas L.
Human Resource Planning, Vol. 21, No. 1, March 1998
Differences between Mergers and Acquisitions: A CPA Valuator Can Help Clients Decide Whether to Merge or Acquire
Mastracchio, Nicholas J., Jr.; Zunitch, Victoria M.
Journal of Accountancy, Vol. 194, No. 5, November 2002
Intervening in the Middle: Coping Strategies in Mergers and Acquisitions
Buono, Anthony F.
Human Resource Planning, Vol. 15, No. 2, June 1992
Effects of Taxation: Corporate Mergers
J. Keith Butters; John Lintner; William L. Cary; Powell Niland.
Maxwell Reprint Co., 1970
Unrest in the European Commission: The Changing Landscape and Politics of International Mergers for United States Companies
Peterson, Jeffrey M.
Houston Journal of International Law, Vol. 24, No. 2, Winter 2002
Recent Amendments to the Commercial Code of Japan: Impact on Mergers & Acquisitions
Lebrun, Laurie N.
Law and Policy in International Business, Vol. 32, No. 4, Summer 2001
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