Student Motivation


motivation, in psychology, the intention of achieving a goal, leading to goal-directed behavior. Some human activity seems to be best explained by postulating an inner directing drive. While a drive is often considered to be an innate biological mechanism that determines the organism's activity (see instinct), a motive is defined as an innate mechanism modified by learning. In this view human drives serve to satisfy biological needs, such as hunger, while motives serve to satisfy needs that are not directly tied to the body requirements, such as companionship. Learned motives are sometimes linked with drives; e.g., the motivation to achieve social status is often viewed as a derivitive of the sex drive. Motives are sometimes classed as deficiency motives, such as the need to remove the physiological deficiency of hunger or thirst, or abundancy motives, i.e., motives to attain greater satisfaction and stimulation. American psychologist Abraham Maslow has classified motives into five developmental levels, with the satisfaction of physiological needs most important and esteem and self-actualization needs least important. According to Maslow, the most basic needs must be satisfied before successively higher needs can emerge. Cognitive psychologists such as Albert Bandura have suggested that individual mental processes, such as beliefs, play an important role in motivation, through the expectation of certain reinforcements for certain behaviors. Studies have shown that humans and other animals are likely to seek sensory stimulation, even where there may be no foreseeable goal. In recent years, the use of various tools for brain scanning has worked toward the discovery of a neurological basis for motivation.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Motivating Students to Learn
Jere Brophy.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004 (2nd edition)
Essential Motivation in the Classroom
Ian Gilbert.
Routledge Falmer, 2002
Teachers as Classroom Coaches: How to Motivate Students across the Content Areas
Andi Stix; Frank Hrbek.
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2006
Activating the Desire to Learn
Bob Sullo.
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2007
The Student Motivation Scale: Further Testing of an Instrument That Measures School Students' Motivation
Martin, Andrew J.
Australian Journal of Education, Vol. 47, No. 1, April 2003
A Handbook for Teaching & Learning in Higher Education
Heather Fry; Steve Ketteridge; Stephanie Marshall.
Kogan Page, 2003 (2nd edition)
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 5 "Encouraging Student Motivation"
Cartooning Your Way to Student Motivation
Sallis, Derek; Rule, Audrey C.; Jennings, Ethan.
Science Scope, Vol. 32, No. 9, Summer 2009
Academic Motivation: Concepts, Strategies, and Counseling Approaches
Rowell, Lonnie; Hong, Eunsook.
Professional School Counseling, Vol. 16, No. 3, February 2013
Helping Kids Achieve Their Best: Understanding and Using Motivation in the Classroom
Dennis M. McInerney.
Allen & Unwin, 2000
Working with the Textbook: How to Enhance Student Motivation
McCabe, Patrick P.
Social Education, Vol. 67, No. 5, September 2003
Student Motivation in Physical Education and Engagement in Physical Activity
Bryan, Charity Leigh; Solmon, Melinda A.
Journal of Sport Behavior, Vol. 35, No. 3, September 2012
A Comparison of Assessment Practices and Their Effects on Learning and Motivation in a Student-Centered Learning Environment
Pedersen, Susan; Williams, Doug.
Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, Vol. 13, No. 3, Fall 2004
Blending Education for High-Octane Motivation: A Leading Thinker Sees Schools Using More Information Technology to Customize Learning and Make Them Radically Student-Centric
Patterson, Gregory A.
Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 94, No. 2, October 2012
Homework: Motivation and Learning Preference
Eunsook Hong; Roberta M. Milgram.
Bergin & Garvey, 2000
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