pharaoh (fâr´ō) [Heb., from Egyptian,=the great house], title of the kings of ancient Egypt. Of the pharaohs in the Bible, Shishak is Sheshonk I, Neco or Necoh is Necho, and Hophra is Apries. Many scholars believe that the pharaoh who oppressed the Jews in chapters 1–14 of the Book of Exodus was Seti I and that his son Ramses II was the pharaoh of the Exodus.

See also Dynasties of Ancient Egypt (table).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

The Spirit of Ancient Egypt
Ana Ruiz.
Algora, 2001
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 22 "Kings and Conquerers," Chap. 23 "Queens"
Early Dynastic Egypt
Toby A. H. Wilkinson.
Routledge, 1999
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 6 "Kingship"
The Last Pharaohs: Egypt under the Ptolemies, 305-30 BC
J. G. Manning.
Princeton University Press, 2010
Ptolemy of Egypt
Walter M. Ellis.
Routledge, 1994
Cleopatra: A Biography
Duane W. Roller.
Oxford University Press, 2010
Hatshepsut: The Female Pharaoh
Ray, John.
History Today, Vol. 44, No. 5, May 1994
Tausret: Forgotten Queen and Pharaoh of Egypt
Richard H. Wilkinson.
Oxford University Press, 2012
Amasis: The Pharaoh with No Illusions
Ray, John.
History Today, Vol. 46, No. 3, March 1996
Great Leaders, Great Tyrants? Contemporary Views of World Rulers Who Made History
Arnold Blumberg.
Greenwood Press, 1995
Librarian’s tip: "Akhenaten c. 1396-1360 B.C.E.: King of Egypt, 1377-1360 B.C.E." begins on p. 1
Conspiracies in the Egyptian Palace: Unis to Pepy I
Naguib Kanawati.
Routledge, 2002
Who's Who in Ancient Egypt
Michael Rice.
Routledge, 1999
Looking for a topic idea? Use Questia's Topic Generator