Hammurabi

Hammurabi (hämŏŏrä´bē), fl. 1792–1750 BC, king of Babylonia. He founded an empire that was eventually destroyed by raids from Asia Minor. Hammurabi may have begun building the tower of Babel (Gen. 11.4), which can now be identified with the temple-tower in Babylon called Etemenanki. His code of laws is one of the greatest of ancient codes. It is carved on a diorite column, in 3,600 lines of cuneiform; it was found (1902) at Susa and is now at Paris. The code, which addresses such issues as business and family relations, labor, private property, and personal injuries, is generally humanitarian. One severe feature, however, is the retributive nature of the punishment, which follows "an eye for an eye" literally. Much of the code is drawn from earlier Sumerian and Semitic laws, which seem to provide the basis for its harshly punitive nature.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

The Social Thought of the Ancient Civilizations
Joyce O. Hertzler.
McGraw-Hill, 1936
Librarian’s tip: "The Code of Hammurabi" begins on p. 85
Documents from Old Testament Times
D. Winton Thomas; Society for Old Testament Study.
Harper Torchbook, 1961
Librarian’s tip: "The Law Code of Hammurabi" begins on p. 27
FREE! History of Babylonia and Assyria
Robert William Rogers.
Eaton & Mains, vol.1, 1901 (2nd edition)
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of Hammurabi begins on p. 388
Four Thousand Years Ago: A World Panorama of Life in the Second Millennium B.C
Geoffrey Bibby.
Alfred A. Knopf, 1961
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of Hammurabi begins on p. 107
Social Thought: From Hammurabi to Comte
Rollin Chambliss.
Dryden Press, 1954
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 2 "Babylonia"
Divorce: A Social Interpretation
J. P. Lichtenberger.
Whittlesey House, 1931
Librarian’s tip: "The Code of Hammurabi" begins on p. 38
The King and I: A Mari King in Changing Perceptions
Sasson, Jack M.
The Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 118, No. 4, October 1998
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Goodbye to Hammurabi: Analyzing the Atavistic Appeal of Restorative Justice
Delgado, Richard.
Stanford Law Review, Vol. 52, No. 4, April 2000
Resurrection of Victims
Petrovec, Dragan.
Social Justice, Vol. 24, No. 1, Spring 1997
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Legal Sanctions Imposed on Parents in Old Babylonian Legal Sources
Fleishman, Joseph.
The Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 121, No. 1, January-March 2001
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
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