Khmer Rouge

Khmer Rouge (kəmĕr´ rōōzh), name given to native Cambodian Communists. Khmer Rouge soldiers, aided by North Vietnamese and Viet Cong troops, began a large-scale insurgency against government forces in 1970, quickly gaining control over more than two thirds of the country. The strength of the Khmer Rouge rose dramatically from around 3,000 in 1970 to more than 30,000 in 1973, enabling most of the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong troops to withdraw.

In 1975 the movement, led by Pol Pot, overthrew the Cambodian government, establishing "Democratic Kampuchea." The new government carried out a radical program of evacuating cities, closing schools and factories, and herding the population into collective farms. Intellectuals and skilled workers were assassinated, and a total of perhaps as many as 1.5 million died, inclusive of starvation and forced marches. In 1979, after increasing tensions with Vietnam, Vietnamese troops invaded, aiding a rival Communist faction to depose the Khmer Rouge government. The Khmer Rouge, however, continued to field an army of c.30,000 near the Thai border and retained UN recognition as the official Cambodian government.

In 1982 the Khmer Rouge formed a coalition with former premier Norodom Sihanouk and non-Communist leader Son Sann. Khieu Samphan officially succeeded Pol Pot as head of the Khmer Rouge in 1985, but Pol Pot was believed to remain the real leader. All Cambodian factions signed (1991) a treaty calling for UN-supervised elections and disarming 70% of all forces. In 1992 the United Nations assumed the government's administrative functions, while the Khmer Rouge withdrew from the peace process and resumed fighting. The following year the Khmer Rouge rejected the results of the UN-run elections that brought a coalition government to Cambodia.

The guerrilla force lost about half to three quarters of its strength (3,000–4,000 soldiers) in a mass defection in 1996, and factional fighting within the Khmer Rouge in 1997 led to Pol Pot's ouster, trial, and imprisonment by the Khmer Rouge. The group continued to disintegrate, and factional fighting resumed in 1998. Pol Pot died in April, Khieu Samphan surrendered in Dec., 1998, and by 1999 most members had defected, surrendered, or been captured. A tribunal consisting of both Cambodian and international judges was established in 2006 to try former Khmer Rouge leaders, but the question of trial procedures and other issues delayed the filing of any charges until mid-2007. The first trial, of the former prison chief known as Duch, began in 2009; he was convicted in 2010. Other former leaders, including Khieu Samphan and Ieng Sary, once foreign minister, were indicted later in 2010, and tried beginning in 2011. At the same time, however, two international judges resigned (2011, 2012) from the tribunal; in both cases, Cambodian resistance to any further prosecutions was a factor. Ieng Sary died (2013) before his trial was completed.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Cambodia, Pol Pot, and the United States: The Faustian Pact
Michael Haas.
Praeger, 1991
Elusive Justice for the Victims of the Khmer Rouge
Marks, Stephen P.
Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 52, No. 2, Spring 1999
Annihilating Difference: The Anthropology of Genocide
Alexander Laban Hinton.
University of California Press, 2002
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 7 "Dance, Music, and the Nature of Terror in Democratic Kampuchea"
A Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts
Samuel Totten; William S. Parsons; Israel W. Charny.
Routledge, 2004 (2nd edition)
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 11 "The Cambodian Genocide-1975-1979"
Propaganda, Politics, and Violence in Cambodia: Democratic Transition under United Nations Peace-Keeping
Steve Heder; Judy Ledgerwood.
M. E. Sharpe, 1996
Braving a New World: Cambodian (Khmer) Refugees in An American City
MaryCarol Hopkins.
Bergin & Garvey, 1996
Cambodia Reborn? The Transition to Democracy and Development
Grant Curtis.
Brookings Institution, 1998
A History of Cambodia
David Chandler.
Westview Press, 2000 (3rd edition)
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 13 "Cambodia since 1979"
Dragons Entangled: Indochina and the China-Vietnam War
Steven J. Hood.
M. E. Sharpe, 1992
Librarian’s tip: "Cambodia" begins on p. 40
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