Louis XIV

Louis XIV (king of France)

Louis XIV, 1638–1715, king of France (1643–1715), son and successor of King Louis XIII.

Early Reign

After his father's death his mother, Anne of Austria, was regent for Louis, but the real power was wielded by Anne's adviser, Cardinal Mazarin. Louis did not take over the government until Mazarin's death (1661). By then France was economically exhausted by the Thirty Years War, by the Fronde, and by fiscal abuses. But the centralizing policies of Richelieu and Mazarin had prepared the ground for Louis, under whom absolute monarchy, based on the theory of divine right, reached its height.

Domestic Policy

Louis's reign can be characterized by the remark attributed to him, "L'état, c'est moi" [I am the state]. Louis continued the nobility's exemption from taxes but forced its members into financial dependence on the crown, thus creating a court nobility occupied with ceremonial etiquette and petty intrigues. The provincial nobles also lost political power. Louis used the bourgeoisie to build his centralized bureaucracy. He curtailed local authorities and created specialized ministries, filled by professionals responsible to him. Under his minister Jean Baptiste Colbert industry and commerce expanded on mercantilist principles and a navy was developed. The war minister, the marquis de Louvois, established the foundations of French military greatness.

Religious Affairs

Louis increasingly imposed religious uniformity. His persecution of the Huguenots in the 1680s culminated (1685) in the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (see Nantes, Edict of). The resultant exodus of Protestants, many of whom were merchants and skilled artisans, intensified the kingdom's economic decline and further alienated the Protestant powers. Louis also suppressed Jansenism (see under Jansen, Cornelis). Despite this concern with religious orthodoxy, he favored Gallicanism, and controversy with the popes approached schism (1673–93) before Louis abandoned this position.

Foreign Policy

Louis strove vigorously for supremacy in foreign affairs. His marriage (1660) to the Spanish princess Marie Thérèse served as a pretext for the War of Devolution (1667–68), which netted him part of Flanders, although the Dutch then moved against him with the Triple Alliance of 1668. Relations with the Dutch were exacerbated by commercial rivalry and in 1672 Louis, determined to crush Holland, began the third of the Dutch Wars, which depleted his treasury.

For the next ten years the king limited his policies to diplomacy. He set up "chambers of reunion" to unearth legal grounds for claims on a number of cities, which Louis promptly annexed. Fear of Louis's rapacity resulted in a European coalition (see Augsburg, League of; Grand Alliance, War of the), which confronted him when he attacked the Holy Roman Empire in 1688. This war ended with the Treaty of Ryswick (1697), through which Louis lost minor territories. Louis's last war, the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14), left France in debt and greatly weakened militarily; nevertheless, Louis's grandson retained the Spanish throne.

The Court

Although he had a series of mistresses, Louis XIV finally came under the influence of Mme de Maintenon, whom he married morganatically (1684) after the queen's death. A great supporter of the arts, Louis patronized the foremost writers and artists of his time, including Molière, Jean Racine, Jean de La Fontaine, and Charles Le Brun. The architect Jules Mansart supervised the building of the lavish palace of Versailles. Because of the brilliance of his court, Louis was called "Le Roi Soleil" [the Sun King] and "Le Grand Monarque." He was succeeded by his great-grandson, Louis XV.

Bibliography

For contemporary sources see the incisive memoirs of the Cardinal de Retz; the extremely prejudiced but indispensable memoirs of the duc de Saint-Simon; and the letters of Mme de Sévigné, which brilliantly portray the social life of the time. See also biographies by J. B. Wolf (1968) and P. Erlanger (tr. 1970); studies by P. Goubert (1972), O. Bernier (1987), and P. Sonnino, ed. (1990).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

The Splendid Century: Life in the France of Louis XIV
W. H. Lewis.
Doubleday Anchor Books, 1957
Kings, Courts and Monarchy
Harold Nicolson.
Simon & Schuster, 1962
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 11 "The Sun King"
FREE! Louis XIV and the Zenith of the French Monarchy
Arthur Hassall.
G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1895
FREE! The French Monarchy (1483-1789)
A. J. Grant.
University Press, vol.2, 1914
Librarian’s tip: Chap. X "Louis XIV and Colbert" and Chap. XI "The Early Wars of Louis XIV"
The Failure of Louis XIV's Dutch War
Carl J. Ekberg.
University of North Carolina Press, 1979
FREE! Martin's History of France: The Age of Louis XIV
Henri Martin; Mary L. Booth.
Walker, Wise, vol.2, 1865
FREE! France under the Regency: With a Review of the Administration of Louis XIV
James Breck Perkins.
Houghton Mifflin, 1920
FREE! The Fall of the Stuarts: And Western Europe from 1678-1697
E. Hale.
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1901
Librarian’s tip: "Lewis XIV and France, 1678" begins on p. 5, Chap. VI "Lewis XIV and France to the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 1685", "James II and Lewis XIV" begins on p. 82, and "Lewis XIV Declares War against the Emperor" begins on p. 133
The History of France
W. Scott Haine.
Greenwood Press, 2000
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 4 "Absolute Monarchy: From Apogee (Louis XIV) to Catastrophe (Louis XVI)"
Louis XIV
J. H. Shennan.
Routledge, 1993
Louis XIV
John B. Wolf.
W. W. Norton, 1968
The Dynastic State and the Army under Louis XIV: Royal Service and Private Interest, 1661-1701
Guy Rowlands.
Cambridge University Press, 2002
A Lust for Virtue: Louis XIV's Attack on Sin in Seventeenth-Century France
Philip F. Riley.
Greenwood Press, 2001
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