Huguenots

Huguenots (hyōō´gənŏts), French Protestants, followers of John Calvin. The term is derived from the German Eidgenossen, meaning sworn companions or confederates.

Origins

Prior to Calvin's publication in 1536 of his Institutes of the Christian Religion, a reform movement already existed in France. Despite persecution, the movement grew. Under King Henry II reprisals became more severe. Nevertheless, in 1559, the first French national synod was held, and a Presbyterian church modeled on Calvin's reform in Geneva was founded. The adherence of a large number of the nobility to the movement gave it political meaning and added fuel to persecution.

Wars of Religion and the Edict of Nantes

The conspiracy of Amboise (1560; see Amboise, conspiracy of) during the reign of King Francis II inflamed both Roman Catholic and Protestant sentiment. This, along with political rivalry, particularly among the Bourbons and the Guises, precipitated the Wars of Religion (1562–98; see Religion, Wars of). Despite such heavy blows to the Huguenots as the massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day (1572), the formation of the Catholic League (see League), and the intervention of Spain (1589–98) against the Protestant heir to the throne, the Bourbon Henry IV, the Protestants were ultimately victorious. Their success was due largely to their unity under such admirable leaders as Louis I de Condé (see under Condé, family), Gaspard de Coligny, Jeanne d'Albret, and her son, Henry IV.

In 1598, Henry IV, by issuing the Edict of Nantes (see Nantes, Edict of), established Protestantism in 200 towns, proclaimed freedom of worship, and allowed substantial political independence. During the next 50 years, more and more skilled artisans and members of the bourgeoisie became Huguenots, who thus constituted one of the most industrious and economically advanced elements in French society.

Suppression

In the reign of King Louis XIII, Cardinal Richelieu decided to suppress Protestant political privileges. An uprising (1621–22) against the introduction of Catholicism in Béarn was put down by Richelieu, and the Protestants lost all the strongholds given to them under the Edict of Nantes, except Montauban and La Rochelle. Led by Henri de Rohan and Benjamin de Soubise, the Huguenots revolted again in 1625 and in 1627. La Rochelle was captured (1628) by Richelieu after a 14-month siege, during which King Charles I of England attempted to send some aid to the Protestant defenders. The Peace of Alais (1629) stripped the Huguenots of all political power but assured them of continued religious tolerance.

Cardinal Mazarin continued Richelieu's policy, but King Louis XIV, urged by the French Catholic clergy, moved to suppress the dissident religion. Conversion was encouraged; the Edict of Nantes was interpreted in the strictest way possible; and dragoons were quartered in the homes of Huguenots (see dragonnades). Finally, in 1685, the Edict of Nantes was revoked.

This act had disastrous results. Entire provinces were depopulated as countless Huguenots fled to England, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, and America. The only important fragment of Huguenots left in France was in the Cévennes, where the war of the Camisards (1702–10) broke out. In 1787, Louis XVI allowed the Huguenots tolerance, and in Dec., 1789, the revolutionary National Assembly restored their civil rights. Full religious freedom was not attained until church and state were separated in 1905.

Bibliography

See history by H. M. Baird (6 vol., 1879–95); G. A. Rothrock, The Huguenots (1979); N. M. Sutherland, The Huguenot Struggle for Recognition (1980); R. D. Gwynn, Huguenot Heritage (1985); G. Treasure, The Huguenots (2013).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Beneath the Cross: Catholics and Huguenots in Sixteenth-Century Paris
Barbara B. Diefendorf.
Oxford University Press, 1991
The Persecution of Huguenots and French Economic Development, 1680-1720
Warren C. Scoville.
University of California Press, 1960
Huguenots and Palatines
Olson, Alison G.
The Historian, Vol. 63, No. 2, Winter 2001
The French Religious Wars in English Political Thought
J. H. M. Salmon.
Clarendon Press, 1959
Renaissance and Reformation: A Survey of European History between 1450 and 1660
V. H. H. Green.
Edward Arnold, 1952
Librarian’s tip: "The Rise of the Huguenots" begins on p. 263
The Edict of Nantes
.
History Today, Vol. 48, No. 4, April 1998
The Age of Catherine de Medici and Essays in Elizabethan History
J. E. Neale.
Jonathan Cape, 1963
FREE! The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre
Henry M. Baird.
Charles Scribner's Sons, vol.1, 1886
FREE! The Wars of Religion in France, 1559-1576: The Huguenots, Catherine de Medici and Philip II
James Westfall Thompson.
University of Chicago Press, 1909
Politics & Religion in Seventeenth-Century France: A Study of Political Ideas from the Monarchomachs to Bayle, as Reflected in the Toleration Controversy
W. J. Stankiewicz.
University of California Press, 1960
Politics and Religion in Sixteenth-Century France: A Study of the Career of Henry of Montmorency-Damville, Uncrowned King of the South
Franklin Charles Palm.
Ginn, 1927
Shouting Down Abraham: How Sixteenth Century Huguenot Women Found Their Voice
Randall, Catharine.
Renaissance Quarterly, Vol. 50, No. 2, Summer 1997
Pioneers of France in the New World
Francis Parkman.
University of Nebraska Press, 1996
Faith in Nation: Exclusionary Origins of Nationalism
Anthony W. Marx.
Oxford University Press, 2003
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of the Huguenots begins on p. 52
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