Eamon de Valera

Eamon De Valera (ā´mən dĕ vəlâr´ə), 1882–1975, Irish statesman, b. New York City. He was taken as a child to Ireland. As a young man he joined the movement advocating physical force to achieve Irish independence and took part in the Easter Rebellion of 1916. He was sentenced to life imprisonment (escaping execution because he was a U.S. citizen) but was released under a general amnesty in 1917. Elected that same year a member of Parliament and president of Sinn Féin, De Valera was arrested again in May, 1918. However, he escaped from prison (Feb., 1919) and went to the United States, where he raised funds for Irish independence. In the meantime he had been elected president of Ireland by the Dáil Éireann, the revolutionary parliament that had declared the country independent. In 1920, when he returned to Ireland, the country was in a state of virtual war against British rule. In 1921 the British government opened the negotiations that led to the establishment of the Irish Free State. De Valera, however, repudiated the final treaty because it excluded Northern Ireland and required Irish officeholders to swear allegiance to the British crown. He resigned from the Dáil in Jan., 1922. Nominal leader of the republican intransigents, De Valera greatly deplored the period of civil war that followed. He maintained his opposition to the government, however, and did not enter the Dáil with his party, Fianna Fáil, until 1927. In the general election of 1932 his party gained control of the Dáil, and De Valera became head of the government. He immediately abolished the oath of allegiance and refused to pay land annuities to Britain. A tariff war followed that was not ended until 1938. In 1937, De Valera introduced a new constitution declaring Ireland a fully sovereign state. He kept Ireland neutral throughout World War II, refusing to let the British use southern Irish ports and vigorously protesting Allied military activity in Northern Ireland. Fianna Fáil was defeated in the election of 1948, but De Valera returned as prime minister with independent support (1951–54) and with an absolute majority (1957–59). Hampered by failing vision, in 1959 he moved to the less demanding office of president of the republic, to which he was reelected in 1966. He retired in 1973.

See his speeches edited by M. Moynihan (1980); biographies by F. P. Longford and T. P. O'Neill (1971), O. Edwards (1988); C. Younger, A State of Disunion (1972); J. O'Carroll and J. Murphy ed., De Valera and His Times (1986).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

The Irish Experience: A Concise History
Thomas E. Hachey; Joseph M. Hernon Jr.; Lawrence J. McCaffrey.
M. E. Sharpe, 1996 (Revised edition)
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 13 "The De Valera Era, 1932-1959: Continuity and Change in Irish Life"
'Dev': The Career of Eamon De Valera: Phil Chapple Examines a Titanic and Controversial Figure in Modern Irish History
Chapple, Phil.
History Review, No. 53, December 2005
The Birth of the Irish Free State, 1921-1923
Joseph M. Curran.
University of Alabama Press, 1980
The Making of Fianna Fail Power in Ireland, 1923-1948
Richard Dunphy.
Clarendon Press, 1995
Ireland: Historical Echoes, Contemporary Politics
Richard B. Finnegan; Edward T. McCarron.
Westview Press, 2000
Librarian’s tip: "De Valera's Dream" begins on p. 75
Money for Ireland: Finance, Diplomacy, Politics, and the First Daail Aeireann Loans, 1919-1936
Francis M. Carroll.
Praeger, 2002
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 2 "The Irish Bond-Certificate Drive in America"
Defending Ireland: The Irish State and Its Enemies since 1922
Eunan O'Halpin.
Oxford University, 1999
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 4 "Internal Security and External Defence, 1932-1939"
The Anglo-Irish War, 1916-1921: A People's War
William H. Kautt.
Praeger Publishers, 1999
Liberty of Expression in Ireland and the Need for a Constitutional Law of Defamation
Frazier, Sarah.
Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 32, No. 2, March 1999
Ireland's Divorce Bill: Traditional Irish and International Norms of Equality and Bodily Integrity at Issue in a Domestic Abuse Context
Barnes, Anthony Tyler.
Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 31, No. 3, May 1998
The Oxford Companion to Irish History
S. J. Connolly.
Oxford University Press, 1999
Librarian’s tip: "Valera, Eamon de" begins on p. 577
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