Hundred Years War

Hundred Years War, 1337–1453, conflict between England and France.

Causes

Its basic cause was a dynastic quarrel that originated when the conquest of England by William of Normandy created a state lying on both sides of the English Channel. In the 14th cent. the English kings held the duchy of Guienne in France; they resented paying homage to the French kings, and they feared the increasing control exerted by the French crown over its great feudal vassals. The immediate causes of the Hundred Years War were the dissatisfaction of Edward III of England with the nonfulfillment by Philip VI of France of his pledges to restore a part of Guienne taken by Charles IV; the English attempts to control Flanders, an important market for English wool and a source of cloth; and Philip's support of Scotland against England.

The War

The war may be dated from 1337, when Edward III of England assumed the title of king of France, a title held by Philip VI. Edward first invaded France from the Low Countries (1339–40), winning small success on land but defeating (1340) a French fleet at the battle of Sluis. In 1346 he won the battle of Crécy and besieged Calais, which surrendered in 1347. In 1356 the English won the battle of Poitiers, capturing King John II of France. After prolonged negotiations, the Treaty of Brétigny was signed (1360); England received Calais and practically all of Aquitaine, as well as a large ransom for the captive king.

The Gascon nobles, oppressively taxed by Edward the Black Prince, appealed (1369) to King Charles V. The war was renewed, and by 1373, Du Guesclin had won back most of the lost French territory. In 1415, Henry V of England renewed the English claims, took Harfleur, and defeated France's best knights at Agincourt. By 1419 he had subdued Normandy, with the connivance of John the Fearless, duke of Burgundy. Philip the Good, successor of John the Fearless, mediated between Henry V and Charles VI of France (see Troyes, Treaty of), and Charles recognized Henry as heir to the crown of France.

By 1429 the English and their Burgundian allies were masters of practically all France N of the Loire, but in that year Joan of Arc raised the siege of Orléans and saw Charles VII crowned king of France at Reims. Her capture by the Burgundians and her judicial murder after extradition to the British did not stop the renewal of French successes. In 1435, Charles obtained the alliance of Burgundy (see Arras, Treaty of). By 1450 the French reconquered Normandy, and by 1451 all Guienne but Bordeaux was taken. After the fall (1453) of Bordeaux, England retained only Calais, which was not conquered by France until 1558. England, torn by the Wars of the Roses, made no further attempt to conquer France.

Results of the War

The Hundred Years War inflicted untold misery on France. Farmlands were laid waste, the population was decimated by war, famine, and the Black Death (see plague), and marauders terrorized the countryside. Civil wars (see Jacquerie; Cabochiens; Armagnacs and Burgundians) and local wars (see Breton Succession, War of the) increased the destruction and the social disintegration. Yet the successor of Charles VII, Louis XI, benefited from these evils. The virtual destruction of the feudal nobility enabled him to unite France more solidly under the royal authority and to promote and ally with the middle class. From the ruins of the war an entirely new France emerged. For England, the results of the war were equally decisive; it ceased to be a continental power and increasingly sought expansion as a naval power.

Bibliography

The great chronicler of the war was Froissart. Shakespeare, taking liberties with history, dramatized the war in Henry V and Henry VI. See also E. Perroy, The Hundred Years War (tr. 1951, repr. 1967); K. A. Fowler, The Age of Plantagenet and Valois (1967); Christopher Allmand, The Hundred Years War (1988); J. Sumption, The Hundred Years War (3 vol., 1990–2000).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

The Hundred Years War: A Wider Focus
L. J. Andrew Villalon; Donald J. Kagay.
Brill, 2005
The Hundred Years War
Robin Neillands.
Routledge, 1990 (Revised edition)
Olivier de Clisson and Political Society in France under Charles V and Charles VI
John Bell Henneman.
University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996
Events That Changed Great Britain, from 1066 to 1714
Frank W. Thackeray; John E. Findling.
Greenwood Press, 2004
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 4 "The Hundred Years' War, 1337-1453"
Edward III: W. M. Ormrod Describes the Career of the King Whose Fifty Years on the Throne Are Best Remembered for His Wars with France and Scotland, and His Foundation of the Order of the Garter. (Cover Story)
Ormrod, W. M.
History Today, Vol. 52, No. 6, June 2002
What Hundred Years War? by Challenging the Very Idea of a Continuous Anglo-French Medieval War Ian Mortimer Reveals the Remarkable Complexities of a Series of Distinct Conflicts That Began with a Prophecy and Ended with an English Dynasty Seeking the Approval of God
Mortimer, Ian.
History Today, Vol. 59, No. 10, October 2009
Poitiers: High Point of the Hundred Years' War: Ian Mortimer Remembers the English Triumph at Poitiers in September 1356, and Suggests That This Victory Was the Dramatic Culmination of Edward III's Visionary Approach to Waging War, the Consequences of Which Are Still with Us Today
Mortimer, Ian.
History Today, Vol. 56, No. 9, September 2006
The Low Countries and the Hundred Years' War: 1326-1347
Henry Stephen Lucas.
University of Michigan, 1929
Events That Changed the World through the Sixteenth Century
Frank W. Thackeray; John E. Findling.
Greenwood Press, 2001
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 3 "Hundred Year's War, 1337-1453"
Imagining Peace: A History of Early English Pacifist Ideas, 1340-1560
Ben Lowe.
Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 3 "Antiwar Discourse during the Hundred Years War" and Chap. 4 "Peace Discourse during the Hundred Years War: Clerical and Later Literary Responses"
The Military Revolution Debate: Readings on the Military Transformation of Early Modern Europe
Clifford J. Rogers.
Westview Press, 1995
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 3 "The Military Revolutions of the Hundred Years War"
Medieval Warfare: A History
Maurice Keen.
Oxford University Press, 1999
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 7 "The Age of the Hundred Years War"
War, Peace, and World Orders in European History
Anja V. Hartmann; Beatrice Heuser.
Routledge, 2001
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 11 "War, Peace, and National Identity in the Hundred Years' War"
England in the Later Middle Ages: A Political History
M. H. Keen.
Routledge, 2003 (2nd edition)
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 6 "Edward III and the Hundred Years War 1337-1360"
Historical Dictionary of Late Medieval England, 1272-1485
Ronald H. Fritze; William B. Robison.
Greenwood Press, 2002
Librarian’s tip: "Hundred Years War (1337-1453)" begins on p. 265
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