William Wallace

Wallace, Sir William

Sir William Wallace, 1272?–1305, Scottish soldier and national hero. The first historical record of Wallace's activities concerns the burning of Lanark by Wallace and 30 men in May, 1297, and the slaying of the English sheriff, one of those whom Edward I of England had installed in his attempt to make good his claim to overlordship of Scotland. After the burning of Lanark many joined Wallace's forces, and under his leadership a disciplined army was evolved. Wallace marched on Scone and met an English force of more than 50,000 before Stirling Castle in Sept., 1297. The English, trying to cross a narrow bridge over the Forth River, were killed as they crossed, and their army was routed. Wallace crossed the border and laid waste several counties in the North of England. In December he returned to Scotland and for a short time acted as guardian of the realm for the imprisoned king, John de Baliol. In July, 1298, Edward defeated Wallace and his army at Falkirk, and forced him to retreat northward. His prestige lost, Wallace went to France in 1299 to seek the aid of King Philip IV, and he possibly went on to Rome. He is heard of again fighting in Scotland in 1304, but there was a price on his head, and in 1305 he was captured by Sir John de Menteith. He was taken to London in Aug., 1305, declared guilty of treason, and executed. The best-known source for the life of Wallace is a long romantic poem attributed to Blind Harry, written in the 15th cent.

See biography by J. Fergusson (1938, rev. ed. 1948).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

William Wallace
Andrew Fisher.
Birlinn, 2007
FREE! Mythical Bards and the Life of William Wallace
William Henry Schofield.
Harvard University Press, 1920
A Companion to Scottish Culture
David Daiches.
Holmes & Meier, 1982
Librarian’s tip: "Wallace, William" begins on p. 396
The Outlaws of Medieval Legend
Maurice Keen.
Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1961
Librarian’s tip: Chap. VI "William Wallace and the Scottish Outlaws"
A New History of Scotland
William Croft Dickinson.
Nelson, vol.1, 1962
Librarian’s tip: Chap. XVII "The War of Independence"
FREE! The Dawn of the Constitution: Or, the Reigns of Henry III and Edward I (A.D. 1216-137)
James H. Ramsay.
Oxford University Press, 1908
Librarian’s tip: Chap. XXIX "Edward I (continued) A.D. 1297, 1298"
Screening the Past: Film and the Representation of History
Tony Barta.
Praeger, 1998
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 10 "Braveheart and the Scottish Aesthetic Dementia"
The Hunt for William Wallace: Andrew Fisher Asks Who William Wallace Really Was, and Why He Has Become an Icon of Scottish Resistance to the English
Fisher, Andrew.
History Today, Vol. 55, No. 9, September 2005
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