Selective Service System

selective service

selective service, in U.S. history, term for conscription.

Conscription was established (1863) in the U.S. Civil War, but proved unpopular (see draft riots). The law authorized release from service to anyone who furnished a substitute and, at first, to those who paid $300. General conscription was reintroduced in World War I with the Selective Service Act of 1917. All men from 21 to 30 years of age (later extended 18 to 45), inclusive, had to register. Exemptions from service were granted to men who had dependent families, indispensable duties at home, or physical disabilities. Conscientious objector status was granted to members of pacifist religious organizations, but they had to perform alternative service. Other war objectors were imprisoned, where several died. By the end of World War I about 2,800,000 men had been inducted.

The United States first adopted peacetime conscription with the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940. The act provided that not more than 900,000 men were to be in training at any one time, and it limited service to 12 months—later (1941) extended to 18 months. After the United States entered World War II, a new selective service act made men between 18 and 45 liable for military service and required all men between 18 and 65 to register. The terminal point of service was extended to six months after the war. From 1940 until 1947—when the wartime selective service act expired after extensions by Congress—over 10,000,000 men were inducted. A new selective service act was passed in 1948 that required all men between 18 and 26 to register and that made men from 19 to 26 liable for induction for 21 months' service, which would be followed by 5 years of reserve duty.

When the Korean War broke out, the 1948 law was replaced (1951) by the Universal Military Training and Service Act. The length of service was extended to 24 months, and the minimum age for induction was reduced to 181/2 years. The main purpose of the Reserve Forces Act of 1955 was to strengthen the reserve forces and the National Guard. It required six years of duty, including both reserve and active duty. The Military Selective Service Act of 1967 required all men between the ages of 18 and 26 to register for service. The regular exemptions along with educational deferments were granted. These loopholes and other technicalities tended to discriminate against working-class and poor men, and thus a higher percentage from these groups were drafted.

Due to this perceived discrimination by class and also because of the great unpopularity of the Vietnam War, conscription became a major social issue. There were numerous demonstrations at draft boards and induction centers. Many young men evaded the draft through technicalities or fraud; thousands fled the country or went to prison. In 1973 conscription was abolished in favor of an all-volunteer army. President Gerald R. Ford granted clemency to many draft resisters in 1974, and President Jimmy Carter granted amnesty to draft resisters in 1977. In 1980, Congress reinstituted draft registration for men 18 to 25 years old. If there were to be a crisis, registered men would be inducted as determined by age and a random lottery.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

I Want You! The Evolution of the All-Volunteer Force
Bernard Rostker.
Rand, 2006
American Political Prisoners: Prosecutions under the Espionage and Sedition Acts
Stephen M. Kohn.
Praeger, 1994
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 2 "Selective Service Act"
The Truman Administration: Its Principles and Practice
Louis W. Koenig.
New York University Press, 1956
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of selective service begins on p. 163
Crossing the Pond: The Native American Effort in World War II
Jere' Bishop Franco.
University of North Texas Press, 1999
Librarian’s tip: "Bringing Them in Alive: Selective Service and Native Americans" begins on p. 41
World War II and the American Indian
Kenneth William Townsend.
University of New Mexico Press, 2000
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of the selective service system begins on p. 61
Working-Class War: American Combat Soldiers and Vietnam
Christian G. Appy.
University of North Carolina Press, 1993
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of the selective service system begins on p. 28
The National Guard and National Defense: The Mobilization of the Guard in World War II
Robert Bruce Sligh; Roger Beaumont.
Praeger Publishers, 1992
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of the selective service system begins on p. 79
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