Battle of Waterloo

Waterloo campaign

Waterloo campaign, last action of the Napoleonic Wars, ending with the battle of Waterloo. Napoleon I, who escaped from Elba in Feb., 1815, and entered Paris on Mar. 20, soon faced a European coalition. His only hope lay in attacking before the enemy could combine to attack him, although he could count on only about 125,000 men in the immediate future. His plan was to destroy the British and Prussian forces under Wellington and Blücher on the northern frontier, before dealing with the Austrians and Russians under Prince Schwarzenberg then gathering on the eastern frontier. To effect this, he decided to concentrate his forces near Charleroi, between Blücher's force of about 120,000 and Wellington's of about 93,000, and thus prevent their junction. Setting out for the front on June 12, he seized Charleroi while the allies still believed he was in Paris, and he defeated Blücher at Ligny (June 16). Assuming that the Prussians were retreating toward their base in Namur, he detached Grouchy with 33,000 men to pursue them. Meanwhile, Marshal Ney was battling Wellington at Quatre Bras; Napoleon now turned to his assistance, and Wellington, though victorious, was compelled to retreat toward Brussels. Wellington took up a strong position S of Waterloo, between Mont-Saint-Jean and Belle-Alliance, and awaited attack. On June 18, about noon, Napoleon began a massed attack against the British center, but the British stemmed the tide until the overdue arrival, late in the day, of the Prussian forces, who had eluded Grouchy by marching on Wavre instead of Namur. This event proved the turning point of the battle. Routed, the French retreated with the Prussians in pursuit. Napoleon left the field and signed (June 22) his second abdication. French casualties were about 32,000, the coalition's about 23,000. The campaign was marked by confusion and miscalculation on all sides. The battle figures prominently in European literature.

See J. Naylor, Waterloo (1960); D. A. Howarth, Waterloo: Day of Battle (1968); U. Pericoli, 1815: The Armies at Waterloo (1974).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

The Waterloo Campaign, June 1815
Albert A. Nofi.
Combined Publishing, 1993
Waterloo to Peterloo
R. J. White.
Russell & Russell, 1973
The Halt in the Mud: French Strategic Planning from Waterloo to Sedan
Gary P. Cox.
Westview Press, 1994
FREE! A History of France from the Earliest Times to the Treaty of Versailles
William Stearns Davis.
Houghton Mifflin, 1919
Librarian’s tip: Chap. XVIII "Glory and Madness -- Moscow, Leipzig, and Waterloo"
Napoleon
Felix Markham.
New American Library, 1963
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 15 "The Hundred Days and Waterloo"
Wellington: A Personal History
Christopher Hibbert.
Perseus Publishing, 1997
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 25 "Waterloo 1815"
Wellington and His Army
Godfrey Davies.
Basil Blackwell, 1954
The Duke of Wellington and the British Army of Occupation in France, 1815-1818
Thomas Dwight Veve.
Greenwood Press, 1992
Britain as a Military Power, 1688-1815
Jeremy Black.
UCL Press, 1999
Librarian’s tip: "Waterloo, 18 June 1815" begins on p. 215
FREE! The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World: From Marathon to Waterloo
Edward S. Creasy.
J. M. Dent & Sons; E. P. Dutton, 1908
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 15 "The Battle of Waterloo, 1815"
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