Atomic Bomb

atomic bomb or A-bomb, weapon deriving its explosive force from the release of nuclear energy through the fission (splitting) of heavy atomic nuclei. The first atomic bomb was produced at the Los Alamos, N.Mex., laboratory and successfully tested on July 16, 1945. This was the culmination of a large U.S. army program that was part of the Manhattan Project, led by Dr. Robert Oppenheimer. It began in 1940, two years after the German scientists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman discovered nuclear fission. On Aug. 6, 1945, an atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima with an estimated equivalent explosive force of 12,500 tons of TNT, followed three days later by a second, more powerful, bomb on Nagasaki. Both bombs caused widespread death, injury, and destruction, and there is still considerable debate about the need to have used them.

Atomic bombs were subsequently developed by the USSR (1949; now Russia), Great Britain (1952), France (1960), and China (1964). A number of other nations, particularly India, Pakistan, Israel, and North Korea now have atomic bombs or the capability to produce them; South Africa formerly possessed a small arsenal. The three smaller Soviet successor states that inherited nuclear arsenals (Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Belarus) relinquished all nuclear warheads, which have been removed to Russia.

Atomic bombs have been designed by students, but their actual construction is a complex industrial process. Practical fissionable nuclei for atomic bombs are the isotopes uranium-235 and plutonium-239, which are capable of undergoing chain reaction. If the mass of the fissionable material exceeds the critical mass (a few pounds), the chain reaction multiplies rapidly into an uncontrollable release of energy. An atomic bomb is detonated by bringing together very rapidly (e.g., by means of a chemical explosive) two subcritical masses of fissionable material, the combined mass exceeding the critical mass. An atomic bomb explosion produces, in addition to the shock wave accompanying any explosion, intense neutron and gamma radiation, both of which are very damaging to living tissue. The neighborhood of the explosion becomes contaminated with radioactive fission products. Some radioactive products are borne into the upper atmosphere as dust or gas and may subsequently be deposited partially decayed as radioactive fallout far from the site of the explosion.

See disarmament, nuclear; hydrogen bomb; nuclear strategy; and nuclear weapons; see also nuclear energy.

See G. Herken, The Winning Weapon (1988) and Brotherhood of the Bomb (2002); R. Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb (1986, repr. 1995); R. Serber, The Los Alamos Primer: The First Lectures on How to Build an Atomic Bomb (1992); R. Fermi et al., Picturing the Bomb: Photographs from the Secret World of the Manhattan Project (1995); P. B. Hales, Atomic Spaces: Living on the Manhattan Project (1997); J. Baggott, The First War of Physics: The Secret History of the Atom Bomb, 1939–1949 (2010).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

The American Atom: A Documentary History of Nuclear Policies from the Discovery of Fission to the Present, 1939-1984
Robert C. Williams; Philip L. Cantelon.
University of Pennsylvania Press, 1984
Historical Encyclopedia of Atomic Energy
Stephen E. Atkins.
Greenwood Press, 2000
Nazi Science: Myth, Truth, and the German Atomic Bomb
Mark Walker.
Plenum Press, 1995
Israel and the Bomb
Avner Cohen.
Columbia University Press, 1998
Nuclear America: Military and Civilian Nuclear Power in the United States, 1940-1980
Gerard H. Clarfield; William M. Wiecek.
Harper & Row, 1984
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 2 "The Radiance of a Thousand Suns": Development of the Atomic Bomb during World War II
Atomic Weapons and Armies
F. O. Miksche.
Praeger, 1955
The Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb
Dennis D. Wainstock.
Praeger, 1996
Prompt and Utter Destruction: Truman and the Use of Atomic Bombs against Japan
J. Samuel Walker.
University of North Carolina Press, 1997
The Atomic Bomb: Voices from Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Mark Selden; Kyoko Selden.
M. E. Sharpe, 1989
The Atomic Bomb Suppressed: American Censorship in Occupied Japan
Monica Braw.
M. E. Sharpe, 1991
Living with the Bomb: American and Japanese Cultural Conflicts in the Nuclear Age
Laura Hein; Mark Selden.
M.E. Sharpe, 1997
Cold War Statesmen Confront the Bomb: Nuclear Diplomacy since 1945
John Lewis Gaddis; Philip H. Gordon; Ernest R. May; Jonathan Rosenberg.
Oxford University Press, 1999
The Day the Sun Rose Twice: The Story of the Trinity Site Nuclear Explosion, July 16, 1945
Ferenc Morton Szasz.
University of New Mexico Press, 1984
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