Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928

Kellogg-Briand Pact

Kellogg-Briand Pact (brēäN´), agreement, signed Aug. 27, 1928, condemning "recourse to war for the solution of international controversies." It is more properly known as the Pact of Paris. In June, 1927, Aristide Briand, foreign minister of France, proposed to the U.S. government a treaty outlawing war between the two countries. Frank B. Kellogg, the U.S. Secretary of State, returned a proposal for a general pact against war, and after prolonged negotiations the Pact of Paris was signed by 15 nations—Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Great Britain, India, the Irish Free State, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Poland, South Africa, and the United States. The contracting parties agreed that settlement of all conflicts, no matter of what origin or nature, that might arise among them should be sought only by pacific means and that war was to be renounced as an instrument of national policy. Although 62 nations ultimately ratified the pact, its effectiveness was vitiated by its failure to provide measures of enforcement. The Kellogg-Briand Pact was given an unenthusiastic reception by many countries. The U.S. Senate, ratifying the treaty with only one dissenting vote, still insisted that there must be no curtailment of America's right of self-defense and that the United States was not compelled to take action against countries that broke the treaty. The pact never made a meaningful contribution to international order, although it was invoked in 1929 with some success, when China and the USSR reached a tense moment over possession of the Chinese Eastern RR in Manchuria. Ultimately, however, the pact proved to be meaningless, especially with the practice of waging undeclared wars in the 1930s (e.g., the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, the Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1935, and the German occupation of Austria in 1938).

See R. H. Ferrell, Peace in Their Time (1952, repr. 1968).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Documents and Readings in the History of Europe since 1918
Walter Consuelo Langsam; James Michael Eagan.
J.B. Lippincott Company, 1939
Librarian’s tip: The text of the pact begins on p. 220
International Law and the Use of Force by States
Ian Brownlie.
Clarendon Press, 1963
Librarian’s tip: "The Covenant of the League of Nations, the Kellogg-Briand Pact, and Problems of Transition" begins on p. 217
The American Secretaries of State and Their Diplomacy
Samuel Flagg Bemis; Robert H.Ferrell.
Cooper Square Publishers, vol.11, 1963
Librarian’s tip: Chap. Five "The Kellogg-Briand Pact of Paris"
The Right of Conquest: The Acquisition of Territory by Force in International Law and Practice
Sharon Korman.
Clarendon Press, 1996
Librarian’s tip: "The Kellogg--Briand Pact, 1928" begins on p. 192
International Government
Edmund C. Mower.
D. C. Heath and Company, 1931
Librarian’s tip: "The Peace Pact of Paris" begins on p. 587
The Outlawry of War: A Series of Lectures Delivered before the Academy of International Law at the Hague and in the Institut Universitaire de Hautes Aetudes Internationales at Geneva
Hans W. Wehberg; Edwin H. Zeydel.
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1931
Librarian’s tip: "The Kellogg Plan for a World Peace Pact" begins on p. 63
Democracies at the Turning Point: Britain, France, and the End of the Postwar Order, 1928-1933
Maarten L. Pereboom.
Peter Lang, 1997
War, Aggression, and Self-Defense
Yoram Dinstein.
Cambridge University Press, 2001 (3rd edition)
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 4 "The Contemporary Prohibition of the Use of Inter-State Force"
Toward An Entangling Alliance: American Isolationism, Internationalism, and Europe, 1901-1950
Ronald E. Powaski.
Greenwood Press, 1991
Librarian’s tip: "The Kellogg-Briand Pact" begins on p. 47
Looking for a topic idea? Use Questia's Topic Generator