Andes Region History

Andes

Andes (ăn´dēz), mountain system, more than 5,000 mi (8,000 km) long, W South America. The ranges run generally parallel to the Pacific coast and extend from Tierra del Fuego northward, across the equator, as the backbone of the entire continent. The Falkland Islands are a continuation of the Andes, and evidence shows that the system is continued in Antarctica. The Andes go through seven South American countries—Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela.

Geology and Geography

A geologically young system, the Andes were originally uplifted in the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods. They are still rising; volcanoes and earthquakes are common. The folded ranges are discontinuous—merging and bifurcating within the system—but as a whole they form one of the world's most important mountain masses. They are loftier than any other mountains except the Himalayas, with many snowcapped peaks more than 22,000 ft (6,700 m) high. Andean waters reach the Orinoco, the Amazon, and the Río de la Plata.

Far south in Tierra del Fuego, the mountains run east and west, then turn north between Argentina and Chile. The westernmost of the mountains run into the sea, lining the coast of S Chile with islands. In the Patagonian Andes are high, glacier-fed lakes in both Argentina and Chile.

The highest range of the Andes is on the central and northern Argentine-Chilean border; Aconcagua (22,835 ft/6,960 m; highest mountain of the Western Hemisphere) and Tupuncato are there. Between the peaks is Uspallata Pass, the route of the former Transandine Railway, with the Christ of the Andes. Other major peaks such as Llullaillaco flank the main range, and in N Chile sub-Andean ranges enclose the high, cold Atacama Desert.

The central Andes broaden out in Bolivia and Peru in multiple ranges (c.400 mi/640 km wide) with high plateau country (the altiplano) and many high intermontane valleys, where the great civilization of the Inca had its home. High in the mountains on the Peru-Bolivia border is Lake Titicaca. In Bolivia are the notable volcanoes, Illimani and Illampú, and in S Peru is El Misti. The western or coastal range in Peru has lofty peaks (notably Huascarán) and is crossed by the highest railroad of the Andes (from La Oroya to Lima).

The ranges approach each other again in Ecuador, where the N Andes begin. Between two volcanic cordilleras (including the cloud-capped Chimborazo and Cotopaxi) are rich intermontane basins. In Colombia the Andes divide again, the western range running between the coast and the Cauca River, the central between the Cauca and the Magdalena rivers, and the eastern running north parallel to the Magdalena River, then stretching out on the coast into Venezuela. The Andes continue in some of the islands of the West Indies, and in Panama N Andean spurs connect with the mountains of Central America and thus with the Sierra Madre and the Rocky Mts.

People and Economy

The plateaus and valleys of Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia have been peopled since remote times and saw the rise of not only the Inca and the Chibcha but some of the earliest native civilizations in the Western Hemisphere. Today the Quechua and Aymara tribes are the main indigenous inhabitants of the Andes. Agriculture was the basis of these cultures (the native llama and alpaca were domesticated later), and the lands there are still tilled mainly for subsistence crops. Because of a scarcity of water, however, agriculture is difficult. Tobacco, cotton, and coffee are grown and exported. Copper, silver, tin, iron, and gold are mined, and petroleum has been found. Pack trails are the most efficient means of communication in the Andes. Although there is some rail passage through the mountains, the inhabitants of the Andes do not depend on trains for the maintenance of their economy. Certain Andean areas have developed a tourist trade.

Bibliography

See A. G. Ogilvie, Geography of the Central Andes (1922); C. Arthaud and F. Hébert-Stevens, The Andes: Roof of America (tr. 1956); P. E. James, Latin America (1969, repr. 1988); T. Kazami, The Andes (1972); W. S. Pitcher, Magmatism at a Plate Edge: The Peruvian Andes (1985); D. Murphy, Eight Feet in the Andes (1986); S. Lamb, Devil in the Mountain: A Search for the Origin of the Andes (2004).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

The Andes: A Cultural History
Jason Wilson.
Oxford University Press, 2009
Andean Tragedy: Fighting the War of the Pacific, 1879-1884
William F. Sater.
University of Nebraska Press, 2007
Cultural History and Modernity in Latin America: Technology and Culture in the Andes Region
Constantin von Barloewen.
Berghahn Books, 1995
Land and Power in Latin America: Agrarian Economies and Social Processes in the Andes
Benjamin S. Orlove; Glynn Custred.
Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1980
Blacks, Indians, and Spaniards in the Eastern Andes: Reclaiming the Forgotten in Colonial Mizque, 1550-1782
Lolita GutiÉrrez Brockington.
University of Nebraska Press, 2006
Modernity at the Edge of Empire: State, Individual, and Nation in the Northern Peruvian Andes, 1885-1935
David Nugent.
Stanford University Press, 1997
Identity and Power in the Ancient Andes: Tiwanaku Cities through Time
John Wayne Janusek.
Routledge, 2004
Snowfields: The War on Cocaine in the Andes
Clare Hargreaves.
Holmes & Meier, 1992
Debating the Past: Music, Memory, and Identity in the Andes
Raúl R. Romero.
Oxford University Press, 2001
Medical Pluralism in the Andes
Joan D. Koss-Chioino; Thomas Leatherman; Christine Greenway.
Routledge, 2002
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