Continental Congress

Continental Congress, 1774–89, federal legislature of the Thirteen Colonies and later of the United States in the American Revolution and under the Articles of Confederation (see Confederation, Articles of).

First Continental Congress

Indignation against England's colonial policy reached fever pitch in the colonies after the passage (1774) of the Intolerable Acts, and the Sons of Liberty and the committees of correspondence promoted the idea of an intercolonial assembly similar to the one held (1765) at the time of the Stamp Act.

The First Continental Congress (Sept. 5–Oct. 26, 1774) was made up of delegates from all the colonies except Georgia. It met in Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia, and Peyton Randolph was chosen to preside. The meeting's general purpose was to express colonial grievances against British policy, and only a few radical members considered the possibility of breaking with England. The plan of Joseph Galloway for reconciling Great Britain and the colonies under a new imperial scheme was introduced but rejected.

The session's most important act was the creation of the Continental Association, which forbade importation and use of British goods and proposed prohibition of colonial exports. Several petitions of grievances, written principally by John Dickinson, were sent to the king, and the meeting was adjourned until May 10, 1775.

The Second Continental Congress

Smoke from the battles of Lexington and Concord (Apr. 19, 1775) had scarcely cleared when the Second Continental Congress met on the appointed day in Philadelphia. Armed conflict strengthened the radical element, but only gradually did the delegates swing toward independence. A Continental army was created to oppose the British and, through the agency of John Adams, George Washington was appointed (June 15, 1775) commander in chief. The reconciliation plan offered (1775) by Lord North's government was tabled. A diplomatic representative, Silas Deane, was sent (Mar., 1776) to France. American ports were opened in defiance of the Navigation Acts. Finally, the momentous step was taken: Congress on July 4, 1776, adopted the Declaration of Independence.

The Congress, a young and unsteady organization, had little money and limited means for obtaining more. Nevertheless, it struggled to press the conduct of the war while moving, under force of military circumstances, from place to place; it met at Philadelphia (1775–76), Baltimore (1776–77), Philadelphia again (1777), Lancaster, Pa. (1777), York, Pa. (1777–78), and Philadelphia once more (after 1778). There was friction between Congress and the military leaders, and the soldiers, contemptuous (sometimes justly) of the politicians, constantly agitated for their pay and their rights. The Congress, jealous of its powers, frequently hindered Washington in his strategy.

The Postwar Continental Congress

After the war ended and the Articles of Confederation took force, the quality of Congressional membership declined, since state offices were more desirable; and the Congress itself eventually dissolved. The Congress of the postwar period has, however, been underrated by many. Though shackled by the weaknesses of the federal structure, which sharply curtailed its power and particularly its ability to raise funds, the Congress can be credited with some accomplishments—notably the Ordinance of 1787, which set up the Northwest Territory; resolution of the Wyoming Valley territorial dispute; and adoption of the decimal system of currency.

Bibliography

See Journals of the Continental Congress (34 vol., 1904–37); Letters of Members of the Continental Congress (ed. by E. C. Burnett, 6 vol., 1921–33; repr. 1963); E. C. Burnett, The Continental Congress (1941, repr. 1964); L. Montross, The Reluctant Rebels: The Story of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789 (1950, repr. 1970).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Clothed in Robes of Sovereignty: The Continental Congress and the People out of Doors
Benjamin H. Irvin.
Oxford University Press, 2011
Religion and the Continental Congress, 1774-1789: Contributions to Original Intent
Derek H. Davis.
Oxford University Press, 2000
Washington and the Revolution, a Reappraisal: Gates, Conway, and the Continental Congress
Bernhard Knollenberg.
Macmillan, 1940
Essays on the American Revolution
Stephen G. Kurtz; James H. Hutson.
University of North Carolina Press, 1973
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 5 "The Structure of Politics in the Continental Congress"
Origins of the American Revolution
John C. Miller.
Little, Brown, 1943
Librarian’s tip: Chap. XVI "The Continental Congress"
The War Governors in the American Revolution
Margaret Burnham Macmillan.
Columbia University Press, 1943
Librarian’s tip: Chap. VII "The Continental Congress and the Governors"
The Struggle for American Independence
Sydney George Fisher.
Books for Libraries Press, vol.1, 1971
Librarian’s tip: Chap. XIX "The Continental Congress Is Elected" and Chap. XXVII "The Second Continental Congress"
The Price of Independence: A Realistic View of the American Revolution
Broadus Mitchell.
Oxford University Press, 1974
Librarian’s tip: "Disabilities of Congress" begins on p. 36
Sources and Documents Illustrating the American Revolution, 1764-1788, and the Formation of the Federal Constitution
S. E. Morison.
Clarendon Press, 1923
Librarian’s tip: "Declaration and Resolves of the Continental Congress, 1774" begins on p. 118
The Federal Convention and the Formation of the Union of the American States
Winton U. Solberg.
Liberal Arts Press, 1958
Librarian’s tip: "The First Continental Congress" begins on p. 9 and "The Second Continental Congress" begins on p. 15
John Hancock: Patriot in Purple
Herbert S. Allan.
Macmillan, 1948
Librarian’s tip: Includes discussion of the Continental Congress in multiple chapters
Roger Sherman: Signer and Statesman
Roger Sherman Boardman.
University of Pennsylvania Press, 1938
Librarian’s tip: Chap. IX "From Stamp Act Repeal to Continental Congress," Chap. X "The First Continental Congress," and Chap. XI "The Second Continental Congress"
James Madison: Builder: A New Estimate of a Memorable Career
Abbot Emerson Smith.
Wilson-Erickson, 1937
Librarian’s tip: Chap. II "In the Continental Congress, 1780-1783"
FREE! Patrick Henry
Moses Coit Tyler.
Houghton Mifflin, 1898
Librarian’s tip: Chap. VIII "In the First Continental Congress"
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