Benedict Arnold

Benedict Arnold, 1741–1801, American Revolutionary general and traitor, b. Norwich, Conn. As a youth he served for a time in the colonial militia in the French and Indian Wars. He later became a prosperous trader. Early in the Revolution, his expedition against Fort Ticonderoga joined that of Ethan Allen, and the joint command took the fort. Arnold pushed on to the northern end of Lake Champlain, where he destroyed a number of ships and a British fort. In the Quebec campaign, he invaded Canada (1775) by way of the Maine forests. After a grueling march, the exhausted force reached Quebec. Richard Montgomery arrived from Montreal, and the two small armies launched an unsuccessful assault on Dec. 31, 1775. Arnold was wounded but continued the siege until spring, when Sir Guy Carleton forced him back to Lake Champlain. There he built a small fleet that, although defeated, halted the British advance.

In Feb., 1777, Congress, despite General Washington's protests, promoted five brigadier generals of junior rank to major generalships over Arnold's head. This and subsequent slights by Congress embittered Arnold and may in part have motivated his later treason. Although he soon won promotion by his spectacular defense (1777) against William Tryon in Connecticut, his seniority was not restored. In the Saratoga campaign, his relief of Fort Stanwix and his brilliant campaigning under Horatio Gates played a decisive part in the American victory. He became (1778) commander of Philadelphia, after the British evacuation, and there married Peggy Shippen, whose family had Loyalist sympathies.

In 1779 he was court-martialed because of disputes with civil authorities. He was cleared of all except minor charges and was reprimanded by Washington; nevertheless he was given (1780) command of West Point. He had already begun a treasonable correspondence with Sir Henry Clinton in New York City, and now arranged to betray West Point in exchange for a British commission and money. The plot was discovered with the capture of John André, but Arnold escaped. In 1781, in the British service, he led two savage raids—against Virginia and against New London, Conn.—before going into exile in England and Canada, where he was generally scorned and unrewarded.

See biographies by O. Sherwin (1931), M. Decker (1932, repr. 1969), C. Brandt (1994), and J. K. Martin (1998); C. Van Doren, Secret History of the American Revolution (1941, repr. 1968); J. T. Flexner, The Traitor and the Spy (1953); W. M. Wallace, Traitorous Hero (1954, repr. 1970).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

FREE! The American Revolution
John Fiske.
Houghton Mifflin, vol.2, 1891
Librarian’s tip: Chap. XIV "Benedict Arnold"
Triumph of Freedom, 1775-1783
John C. Miller.
Boston, Little, Brown, 1948
Librarian’s tip: Chap. VI "Canadian Adventure," Chap. XXIII "The Revolution Falters," and Chap. XXIV "The Exploits of Lord Cornwallis"
Canada and the United States: Some Aspects of Their Historical Relations
Hugh Keenleyside; Gerald S. Brown.
Alfred A. Knopf, 1952 (Revised edition)
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of Benedict Arnold begins on p. 17
Jefferson, War and Peace, 1776 to 1784
Marie Kimball.
Coward-McCann, 1947
Librarian’s tip: Chap. VI "The Parricide Arnold"
The Neutral Ground: The André Affair and the Background of Cooper's The Spy
Bruce A. Rosenberg.
Greenwood Press, 1994
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 5 "The Arnold Enlistment"
Legal Memories and Amnesias in America's Rhetorical Culture
Marouf Hasian Jr.
Westview Press, 2000
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of Benedict Arnold begins on p. 26
The Counter-Revolution in Pennsylvania, 1776-1790
Robert L. Brunhouse.
Pennsylvania Historical Commission, 1942
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of Benedict Arnold begins on p. 64
The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763-1789
Robert Middlekauff.
Oxford University Press, 1985
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of Benedict Arnold begins on p. 276
FREE! The American Revolution, 1763-1783
William Edward Hartpole Lecky; James Albert Woodburn.
D. Appleton, 1898
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of Benedict Arnold begins on p. 403
Horatio Gates: Defender of American Liberties
Samuel White Patterson.
Columbia University Press, 1941
Librarian’s tip: Chap. IV "Schuyler, Gates, Arnold," Chap. VII "Stillwater, September 19-October 6, 1777," and Chap. VIII "Stillwater, October 7-17, 1777"
Forgotten Americans: Footnote Figures Who Changed American History
Willard Sterne Randall; Nancy Nahra.
Perseus Books, 1998
Librarian’s tip: "Margaret Shippen Arnold: For Services Rendered" begins on p. 20
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